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Greater Antilles PowerPoint Presentation
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Greater Antilles

Greater Antilles

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Greater Antilles

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  1. Greater Antilles

  2. Haiti: three names • Hispaniola (Spanish) • Saint Domingue (French) • Haiti (independent)

  3. Hispaniola • Columbus 1492: BahamasCuba Isla Espanola (Hispaniola) •  first settlement Navidad (Santa Maria is grounded on Christmas day and destroyed. • Eventually his brother is in charge as Adelantado • 1496: Santo Domingo is founded and remains administrative capital of the Spanish Empire until 1526 • Natural destination for ships from Europe • Encomienda system set up by crown

  4. Natural destination

  5. Settlement of Hispaniola • Military/monastic types sent as governors • Bobadilla and Ovando • Bobadilla (1500-1502) • Sets up the monopoly trade system that would eventually impoverish Hispaniola • Arrested Columbus brothers, sent back to Spain in chains • Ovando (1502: severe and repressive rule) • Euro population soars—10,000 • Natives die off • Bartolome de las Casas comes with Ovando: reports that there were up to 4 million natives there in 1492. • Founds 15 cities • Eventually mines fail and Hispaniola becomes a way station

  6. Highs and Lows for Hispaniola • Audencia of Santo Domingo:1511 • Highest court, legislative body • At first, governs all of the Americas • Second audencia in Mexico City in 1528 • SD audencia retains jurisdiction over • Caribbean islands, Florida, Northern Venezuela • Convoy System depresses the Caribbean • Monopoly system • Controlled by merchant guilds in Spain, Mexico and Lima • Less and less room for cargoes to or from the Antilles • Even sugar disappears from the Spanish islands!! • Islands are ignored, become self sufficient • Only ended under Bourbons after 1765 with freer trade

  7. Hispaniola deteriorates • Late 16th C.: Havana gains prominence in protecting treasure fleets • Cortes orders different route through Bahama Channel instead of Windward Passage • More interesting relative to the conquest of Florida and North America • Second half of 17th C.: The buccaneers and Hispaniola • Inter-island trade almost disappears from Hispaniola • Santo Domingo: “city of lawyers” • Lots of smuggling: governor orders burns towns and orders people to move to SD: • Cattle run wildvast herds proliferate • Buccaneers invade east part and barbecue the cows • Haitian bucs are linked to the Buccaneer Kingdom of Tortuga

  8. Havana usurps key role

  9. W. HispaniolaSaint Domingue • 1665: French control by D’Ogeron • Governor for the French West India Company • By 1681: 4000 settlers • Tobacco • Sugar after 1697 • BOOM!!! • Louis XIV permits licensing of pirates • Source of wealth • protection

  10. Sugar! • Mid 18th C. Richest sugar producer along with Jamaica • Two stages • Cane estates along coast • Irrigation system in central provinces • Also coffee, indigo, cotton • By 1789, Saint Domingue is the most valuable colony in the world • 40% of the world’s sugar • 50% of the world’s coffee • 40% of France’s foreign trade

  11. European revolution, war, and independence • French revolution 1789 • Civil war in Saint Domingue • Abolishment of slavery in 1793 • Fifth Caribbean war between France and Great Britain (on many islands) • Toussaint Louverture helps French defeat Brits on Saint Domingue • (assisted by slave rebellions on other islands, disease) • Toussaint becomes a dictator with another problem: Napoleon Bonaparte. • Authoritarian state based economy is his solution to garner funds needed to defeat Napoleon • Sets up centralized authoritarian system that would influence history to this day • Napoleon invades in 1801 • Eventually captures and deposes TL, but yellow fever and fierce resistance overcome him

  12. Haiti: The land of the mountains”the 19th Century • State socialism continues under new rulers until the division of Haiti into the Kingdom and the Republic (1818) • Boyer reunites and extends rule to all of Hispaniola • No investment in infrastructure or education • Increasingly 2 castes: coloured elites and black peasants • 70 years of political instability-becomes normal • Santo Domingo declines • 1882: Heureaux in power: classic kleptocrat • investors come • 1895: Santo Domingo Improvement Company (US) • Purchases debt in exchange for receipts • Defacto situation: No government • Roosevelt steps in to administer until 1940 • Worried about the Panama canal

  13. Haiti in the 20th century • Haiti stagnates • Neighboring Dominican Republic • Trujillo: dictator from 1931-1961 • Flourishes as producer of tropical products • Many Haitians go there for work • Conflicts between them • Woodrow Wilson sends in Marines • DR from 1916-1924 • Haiti from 1915-1934 • “Papa Doc” Duvalier • won election in 1957, but became dictatorial • 1971--“Baby Doc” another kleptocrat • 1986—forced into exile • 1991: Aristide wins and is overthrown (popular priest) • Reinstated in 1994 with the help of the US • US and UN stay until 1997