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An Analysis of Transnational Pharmacy Education in Asia-Pacific Region

An Analysis of Transnational Pharmacy Education in Asia-Pacific Region

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An Analysis of Transnational Pharmacy Education in Asia-Pacific Region

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  1. An Analysis of Transnational Pharmacy Education in Asia-Pacific Region Dr. Benjamin Tak-Yuen Chan Division of Health and Applied Sciences, SPACE, University of Hong Kong

  2. Transnational Education (TNE) • Important and growing phenomenon in cross-border higher education • Mobility of programmes and institutions across national borders instead of student mobility • Growth of enrolments in importing countries/regions (offshore provision) is faster than onshore international student enrolments (in the case of UK and Australia)

  3. Extent of TNE • For higher education (HE) sector, 33% of Australian educational exports are offshore provisions (in 2001) • Top three sites of offshore enrolment parallel source of international student enrolments (Singapore > HKSAR > Malaysia) • UK institutions enrolled 140,000 offshore students against 200,000 international students onshore in 1996-1997 Source: AEI 2003 & OECD 2002

  4. TNE in Profile • An average 56.8% of Australian HE educational exports in these 3 countries/regions are offshore provisions • Together, they account for 79% of offshore total enrolments Source: AEI 2003

  5. Challenge of TNE • New forms of delivery and partnership involved According to IDP (2001): • Delivery modes are face-to-face teaching (40%) and supported distance education (40%) • Partnered with private institutions or providers (51%) or public education institutions (25%) • Predominantly postgraduate (56%) and in business related subjects (51%)

  6. Classification of TNE Provision Type I Locally supported distance learning • Foreign curriculum, some local teaching Type 2 Twinning programmes • Foreign curriculum, local teaching and student mobility in upper years Type 3 Franchise arrangement • Curriculum and teaching arrangement approved by foreign institution Type 4 Branch campus • Curriculum and teaching wholly controlled by foreign institution emulating home context Source: Marginson and McBurnie (2003)

  7. TNE in Health Sciences • Very few TNE provisions are in the health sciences field • Business and management make up 68.2% and IT (19%) of all external bachelor degree enrolments in Singapore. 90% of external postgraduate enrolments are in business and management (Statistics Singapore Newsletter 2001) • Notable provision in health sciences field is in nursing (both top up or degree conversion and postgraduate Masters)

  8. TNE in Pharmacy (1) Evolution • Started as early as 1990 with provision of locally supported distance learning MClinPharm-Otago University by HKU SPACE (Hong Kong) • Twinning programmes (2+2) model for BPharm delivery pioneered by IMU/Strathclyde U and SIT/UniSa (Malaysia) • Branch campus model for BPharm delivery by Nottingham and Monash Universities represent latest developments (Malaysia) • Franchise arrangement applies to pharmaceutical management degrees of Bradford and Sunderland Universities (HKSAR & Singapore)

  9. TNE in Pharmacy (2) Enabling factors • Shortage of pharmacists • Lack of postgraduate education & training courses • Insufficient local capacity or barriers to expansion • Commonwealth sphere of influence in pharmacist training (UK, Australia, NZ) • Government support (Malaysia) or free market access (HKSAR & Singapore) • Receptive students • Foreign degree highly valued

  10. TNE in Pharmacy (3) Benefits • Augments local capacity and achieve faster supply of graduates • Introduces new curriculum ideas and catalyses change in local sector • Encourages private investment in education Possible side-effects • Competition and oversupply in the long run • Hinders localisation efforts • Uncertain return on private investment in education (graduates with dual registration may not work in home country)

  11. Overseeing TNE in Pharmacy National governments • Define national capacity (HKSAR and Malaysia in opposite poles) National pharmaceutical associations • Connect with professionalisation strategy (achieving SPD) Institutions offering TNE in pharmacy • Quality assurance, internationisation of curriculum, proper training and support to teaching staff, ensuring competencies of graduates

  12. Global Pharmacist Supply Situation Source: FIP 2006

  13. Pharmacist Supply Situation in the Three Countries/ Regions Source: P & P Board of HK, Pharmacy Board of Malaysia, Singapore Pharmacy Board

  14. Global Pharmacists Employment Fields Source: FIP 2006

  15. Western Pacific Pharmacists Employment Fields Source: FIP 2006

  16. Challenge for Curriculum Decision-makers in TNE • To understand local context, priorities, needs and constraints • To adapt home curriculum with infusion of local elements • To orient home staff to foreign teaching environment; identify and train local staff up to common expectation • To involve local stakeholders in curriculum planning • To uphold academic values over entrepreneurial concerns of private provider

  17. Curriculum Influence in Pharmacy in the Western Pacific Region International • FIP statement of policy/professional standards (Good Pharmacy Education Practice, Pharmaceutical Care, GPP Guidelines, Code of Ethics) US • 6 year DPharm (Japan, South Korea); • Postgraduate pharmacy residency training and pharmacy specialists accreditation (Taiwan, Singapore, Thailand) British and Australia • 3/4 year undergraduate education + 2 year postgraduate education (clinical pharmacy) (NZ, HK, Malaysia, Singapore) Autochthonous • Colonial heritage, but largely independent development (Philippines, India)

  18. Practicalities of Curriculum Implementation for TNE in Pharmacy • Science-based and Clinical practice contents are fairly standard as defined by universal consensus (FIP) • Pharmaceutical legislations and introduction to health system require localization • Behavioral sciences and health promotion need to account for varying beliefs about health and illness and patterns of medicines usage • Social and administrative pharmacy increasingly important as a subject (SPD, NDP, RUD, regional pharmaceutical public health issues identified by WPPF) • How to provide for multidisciplinary learning and practice placement?

  19. Benefits of TNE for Exporter Country • Encourage study abroad for exporter countries with low rates of domestic student mobility (e.g. Australia’s foreign students: domestic students abroad ratio is 19.74) • Enhance staff development in international education • Foster international awareness of students through curriculum and extra-curricular activities • Move beyond mono-culturalism, deepen cultural capacities and engage with emerging nations & cultures in the region Source: Marginson and McBurnie (2003)

  20. Strategy for Curriculum Internationalization • Need not involve large-scale re-casting of the curriculum of a course • Builds on what is already in it (Levels 1 & 2 of the typology) and utilises institutional off-campus arrangements (Level 3) • Involves changing and transforming students’ perspectives from a mono-cultural view to reflection and acquisition of international literacy • Ideally complemented by providing students with skills and knowledge to perform competently in international environment

  21. Edwards’ Typology of Curriculum Internationalisation Source: Edwards et al. (2003) Higher Educ Res Dev 22(2) 183-192

  22. Success of TNE in Pharmacy When educators have done their lot, it will be incumbent on: Governments of importing country/region • To articulate a clear vision of pharmacy development in order to reap public benefits of private investment in education (prevent brain drain) National pharmaceutical association • To help shape TNE policy • To assist graduates/ returnees in integrating into the local pharmacist corporate • To combat segregation and inequality of opportunities for TNE graduates vis-à-vis local graduates

  23. Thank you!