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PROVIDING CULTURALLY COMPETENT CAREER DEVELOPMENT INTERVENTIONS. Career Development Interventions in the 21 st Century 4 th Edition Spencer G. Niles and JoAnn Harris-Bowlsbey Prepared By Jennifer Del Corso. Definition of Multicultural Counseling.

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  1. PROVIDING CULTURALLY COMPETENT CAREER DEVELOPMENT INTERVENTIONS Career Development Interventions in the 21st Century 4th Edition Spencer G. Niles and JoAnn Harris-Bowlsbey Prepared By Jennifer Del Corso

  2. Definition of Multicultural Counseling A helping process that places the emphasis for counseling theory and practice equally on the cultural impression of both the counselor and the client (Axelson, 1985)

  3. U.S. Census (2010) Hispanic and Asian populations grew by 43% between 2000 and 2010 Black of African American population comprised 13.6% of the total population. White population decreased from 75% to 72%.

  4. Some Basic Facts Whites are expected to make up a decreasing share of the labor force, while Blacks, Asians, and other groups will increase Ample evidence suggests that women, people of color, persons with disabilities, gay men, lesbian women, and transgendered persons continue to encounter tremendous obstacles in their career development Women earn 78 cents on a dollar for every dollar a man earns in a year (Arons, 2008)

  5. Some Basic Facts continued Only 23% of African American and 15% of Hispanic persons are employed as executives, administrators, salespersons, and managers (compared to 32% for Whites). Employment rate for American Indians reached 13.6% in 2009. Men are 18.7 times as likely to be in higher prestige occupations in science, math, or technology than women. Americans with disabilities experienced an unemployment rate of 14.5% in 2011

  6. American Assumptions Individualism and autonomy Affluence Opportunity open to all Centrality of work in people’s lives Linearity and rationality of the career development process

  7. Universal or Culture-Specific Models? Etic perspectives - maintain that career interventions for members of minority groups should be the same as those used for the majority. Emic perspectives - highlight the importance of offering career development interventions that are specific to the client’s culture.

  8. Universal Elements of Healing in All Cultures (Fischer et al.) The therapeutic relationship Shared worldview Client expectations Ritual or intervention

  9. Ethnocentrism When counselors assume that one value system (their own) is superior and preferable to another, they engage in ethnocentric behavior that is insensitive to their clients’ worldviews. Ethnocentrism can easily occur when counselors assume that individualistic and self-sufficient actions are preferable to collectivistic actions reflecting interdependence and group loyalty.

  10. Acculturation The process of adopting the cultural traits or social patterns of another group (Stein,1975) Language familiarity and usage, cultural heritage, ethnicity, ethnic pride and identity, interethnic interactions, and interethnic distance influence acculturation (Padilla, 1980) Persons may be marginal (not accepting either culture fully) or bicultural (accepting both fully)

  11. Identity Development Models Racial Identity Models Gender Identity Models Lesbian/Gay/Bisexual/Transgendered/ Questioning Identity Models

  12. Five Stages of Racial Identity Development (Atkinson, Morten, & Sue) Conformity Dissonance Resistance and immersion Introspection Synergy

  13. Cross Model Pre-encounter Encounter Immersion-Emersion Internalization Internalization-Commitment

  14. Gender Differences in Socialization Stereotypically reinforce competition and skill mastery in boys, relationships and connectedness in girls Affects initial selection of occupation and opportunities for mentoring and promotion

  15. Feminist Identity Model (Gysbers, Heppner, & Johnson) Stage 1: Passive Acceptance Stage 2: Revelation Stage 3: Embeddedness-Emancipation Stage 4: Synthesis Stage 5: Active Commitment

  16. Special Needs of Women(Cook, Heppner, & O’Brien) Dealing with attending to the needs of others Learning to negotiate in the workplace Accessing quality child care Handling sexual harassment in the workplace Accessing mentors

  17. Special Needs of Men Understanding how socialization has influenced their career behaviors Learning to express feelings Learning how to manage and reduce stress Identifying strategies to participate more fully in life roles other than work

  18. Six-Stage Model of Identity Development for Gay Men and Lesbian Women (Cass, 1979) Confusion Comparison Tolerance Acceptance Pride Synthesis

  19. Four-Stage Model of Lesbian Identity Development (Sophie) Stage 1: Awareness of same sex feelings without disclosing these to others Stage 2: Testing and exploration of emerging lesbian identity with limited disclosure to heterosexual persons Stage 3: Identity acceptance and preference for gay social interactions Stage 4: Identify integration with movement from a dichotomous (gay/straight) worldview to integrated

  20. Career Counselor Recommendations for Working with Sexual Minorities Understand discrimination can be formal or informal Help clients achieve realistic and accurate perceptions regarding discrimination Explore various options for coping with workplace discrimination Remain sensitive to the client’s pace of identity development and cultural context.

  21. Definition of Persons with Disabilities One who is usually considered to be different from a normal person -- physically, physiologically, neurologically, or psychologically -- because of accident, disease, birth defect, or developmental problem (Herr & Cramer, 1996)

  22. Another Definition A person who has physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities, or has a record of such impairment, or is regarded as having such an impairment (Americans with Disabilities Act, 1990)

  23. Americans with Disabilities Act Employers can only consider essential job functions when hiring or promoting. Employers must make reasonable accommodations in the workplace.

  24. Career Development Issues of Persons with Disabilities(Zunker, 1998) Adjusting to disability Confronting attitudinal barriers Lack of role models Developing social/interpersonal skills Developing a positive self-concept Developing skills for independent living

  25. Competencies for Working with Persons with Disabilities Interpret and advise about legislation, policy, guidelines, and rights Use diagnostic and informal assessment Assess functional limitations and adapt methods of occupational exploration Apply theory to assist with analysis of self-concept or developmental tasks deficits

  26. Competencies for Working with Persons with Disabilitiescontinued Engage in effective individual and group counseling Team with other specialists for career planning and placement Work with employers to develop or restructure jobs Plan and implement skill-building workshops or experiences

  27. Components of Culturally Sensitive Career Interventions (Herr & Kramer) Possession of knowledge and skills appropriate in any helping relationship Recognition of personal attitudes and values Knowledge of cultural context from which clients come Ability to identify special needs

  28. Components of Culturally Sensitive Career Interventions continued Ability to assist culturally different clients understand that they do have choices, some of which include consequences. Skill to assist culturally different individuals to deal effectively with discrimination when it does occur Skill to discern between client deficits that result from socioeconomic class and those from membership in a racial or ethnic group

  29. Using Assessments Must assure that assessment is valid, reliable, and appropriate for the client’s cultural and linguistic context. Must assure that the test does not have cultural bias. Counselors are encouraged to attend to cultural identity, cultural conception of career problems, cultural context, cultural dynamics in the therapeutic relationship and overall cultural assessment (Leong, Hardin, and Gupta, 2007)

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