Chapter 9Key Issue 3 Where Does Level of Development Vary by Gender?
Gender-Related Development Index • Gender-Related Development Index (GDI) uses the same indicators of development to reflect differences in the accomplishments and conditions of men and women. • A country with complete gender equality would have a GDI of 1.0. • According to 2005 data Norway has the highest GDI (0.960) which means that both men and women in this country have achieved a high level of development. • The lowest GDIs, where women’s level of development is substantially below that of men, are in Sub-Saharan Africa. • Women on average have two-thirds of the income of men in MDCs. The disparity is less in dollar terms in LDCs. • The gap between men and women in education and literacy is much greater in LDCs than in MDCs. • When it comes to life expectancy, the gender gap is greater in MDCs than in LDCs.
Gender Empowerment • The Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) measures the degree of economic and political power held by women. • The GEM economic indicator is the percentage of women in professional and technical jobs. This indicator is much higher in MDCs than in LDCs. • One indicator of the political power of women is the percentage of the country’s administrative and managerial jobs they hold. This is higher in MDCs, especially Europe, than LDCs. • The other political indicator of empowerment is the percentage of women elected to public office. The highest percentages are in northern Europe, and every country has a lower GEM than GDI.