Hawk Hook • Write a paragraph responding to the following quotation • “Statistics are the numbers with the tears washed off them”
Silent Discussion Vocabulary • Silent: Free from sound or noise • Making no utterance • Made without spoken dialogue • Synonyms: mute, speechless, close mouthed, uncommunicative, quiet, • aka..HUSH OR YOU WILL DEFINE TERMS FROM THE AP REVIEW BOOK IN YOUR OWN WORDS!
“Musical” Silent Discussion • I will split you into 8 groups (NO YOU DO NOT GET TO PICK!) • When told, go to the poster with your assigned number on it • While the music is playing there is NO TALKING • Silently respond to the questions by writing your idea on the poster board…You may answer the question, challenge the question or statement, draw a picture, ask another question, or respond to another student’s response. The point is to create a dialogue on the poster about the topic • After 2 minutes, I will stop the music and you must move clockwise to the next question. • You will then continue, like this, until you have responded to each question. • Once you have reached your first question, you will have one minute to read and respond to the comments other people wrote, for each station. We may do a third round
Migration Discussion • Opposing Viewpoints on Assimilation which is the belief that people who move to another country should give up their old culture/language and adopt an entire new way of life. • Con: I came to the conclusion that although immigration is a problem, it is not serious. The really serious problem is assimilation. Samuel P. Huntington • Pro: The making of an American begins at the point where he himself rejects all other ties, any other history, and himself adopts the vesture of his adopted land. James Baldwin • Questions to Ponder: What do you think? Should you give up your old culture for an American way of life - to what extent? What causes people to assimilate or not? Or is the very essence of America diversity?
Migration Discussion • Hospitals are closing across the country due to the burden of illegal immigration, college students find that summer jobs have dried up due to illegal immigration, and wages across the board are lowered by the overwhelming influx of cheap and illegal labor. Duncan Hunter. Questions to Ponder: How does it affect healthcare? Are people struggling to find jobs that immigrants (especially illegal) could take? Are wages lower? • Immigration is the sincerest form of flattery. Jack Paar. Questions to ponder: why do people migrate? Why do they choose certain places?
Migration Discussion • Answers to why both Political Parties do not do more to end illegal or limit legal immigration: How are they similar and different? • The Republican: massive immigration, legal and illegal, is a source of cheap labor for the business owners that make up a large portion of their party • Democratic Party: Creates a massive infusion of potential voters for their Party, and therefore do nothing to end illegal or limit legal immigration Tom Tancredo • Republican and Democratic Presidents on immigration: • Latinos come to the US to seek the same dreams that have inspired millions of others: they want a better life for their children. Family values do not stop at the Rio Grande. Latinos enrich our country with faith in God, a strong ethic of work, community & responsibility. Immigration is not a problem to be solved, it is the sign of a successful nation. New Americans are to be welcomed as neighbors and not to be feared as strangers. GW Bush • Ultimately, the danger to the American way of life is not that we will be overrun by those who do not look like us or do not yet speak our language. The danger will come if we fail to recognize the humanity of [immigrants]--if we withhold from them the opportunities we take for granted, and create a servant class in our midst.
Migration Discussion • Opposing Viewpoints on the Dream Act: A proposed law that would give citizenship to children of undocumented workers who have lived here for years and agree to attend college or join the military. Why do each feel the way they do? Should the children who have lived in the US most of their lives be punished for the actions of their parents? • Pro: Supreme Court Justice William Brennan writes that “those who elect to enter our territory by stealth and in violation of the law should bear the consequences. . . . But the children of those illegal entrants are not in the same situation. They should not be denied an education. • Cons: William Gheen added that "the idea of training illegal aliens to use elite weaponry is not a good national security strategy because he believes many illegal immigrants have "separatist and racist political ideologies."” • Could be a quick route for the illegal parents to gain citizenship
Migration Discussion • I shouldn’t have to press one for English. Questions to Ponder: Should you have to know English fluently before moving to the US? Should English be a national official language? Or should we embrace our diversity by accepting different official languages? Should we all try to be bilingual like much of the world? • If the American dream is for Americans only, it will remain our dream and never be our destiny ~ Rene de Visme Williamson. Questions to Ponder: What is the American Dream? Its purpose? How did it start? If we stop immigration, are we killing the American dream?
Migration The Cause and Effects of Population Movement
Diffusion Review! • What is diffusion? • The spread of ideas or characteristics from one area to another • What is expansion diffusion? • Ideas or characteristics transfer in a snow-ball effect • What is Relocation Diffusion? • The spread of ideas or characteristics by the physical movement of people
Migration Vocabulary • Mobility: • all types of movement from one place to another • Circulation • short-term repetitive movements • What would be some examples? • Ex. Going to the store, visiting your relatives, going on vacation • Seasonal Mobility • Movements based on the time of year • What would be some examples? • To and from college • Transhumance: nomadic herders following seasonal game and vegetation
Migration Vocabulary • Migration • Permanent move to a new location • Specific type of relocation diffusion • Emigration: from a location • Immigration: to a location • Net Migration: Difference btwn # of immigrants and # of emigrants • Net in-migration: immigrants out # emigrants • Absorption or Dispersion? • Net out-migration: emigrants out # immigrants • Absorption or Dispersion?
Why do people Migrate? Reasons, distance, and characteristics of migration
General Information • How has technology transformed diffusion? • Relocation to expansion diffusion • Why are we still migrating? • Wealth and culture
E.G. Ravenstein • Basis of migration studies • Ravenstein’s laws: 3 Groups: • Reasons for Migrating • The distance they typically move • The characteristics of migrants
Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration • Most migrants move only a short distance. • Each migration flow produces a compensating counter-flow. • Long-distance migrants go to one of the great centers of commerce and industry. • Natives of towns are less migratory than those from rural areas. • Females migrate over short distances, males more likely to migrate long distances. • Economic factors are the main cause of migration. • Migration increases with economic development
Push and Pull Factors • Push factors: compels people to move out of a location • Pull factors: compels people to move into a location • Do people take moving lightly? • Must have push and pull factors to move • Hate current home…new home looks like promise • 3 kinds of push and pull factors
1. Economic • Most common • Varies country to country, region to region depending on type of jobs available
2. Cultural • Forced migration: compelled to move by cultural factors • Slavery • Trail of Tears • Atlantic Slave Trade • Political instability • Drawn boundaries split ethnic groups • Forced rival groups together • WAR • Refugees: forced from homes, no return for fear of persecution (religious, ethnic, or political) • 33 million refugees today
Atlantic Slave Trade 6 million Africans were forcibly moved from their homes to the Americas. 13% died from malnutrition and disease on the middle passage.
3. Environmental • To physically attractive areas from hazardous ones • Mountains, seaside's, climates • Myrtle Beach has grown 57% since 1990…Why? • Twice the SC average • Water: • Too much: flooding • Katrina • Too little: Drought • The Dust Bowl
“In just 14 days, the hurricane scattered as many as 1 million evacuees across the US, the largest dislocation in 150 years.”
Houses were shut tight, and cloth wedged around doors and windows, but the dust came in so thinly that it could not be seen in the air, and it settled like pollen on the chairs and tables, on the dishes. ~ Grapes of Wrath
Internal Migration • Permanent movement within a country • Most common migration • Why would this be the most “ideal” form of migration? • Less traumatic: same culture, usually closer to family • 2 Types • Interregional: from one region to another • Example? • Most common: rural to urban for jobs • Intraregional: movement within a region • Example? • Most common: Old city to new suburbs
International Migration • Permanent movement from one country to another • Two types • Voluntary: a move for economic improvement • Forced migration: What was this?
Video Reflection: • Take notes on the following: • 2 AP paragraphs • What hardships did the family have to endure on their journey to Tanzania, include physical features, government policies, and the resources available in the refugee camp. • Your overall impression
Why would many of the Middle Eastern nations have populations that are 60-75% immigrants? (the US is 12%) • Well paying, dangerous jobs in the oil fields
Migration Transition • Wilbur Zelinsky • Related to demographic transition • Stage 2 of Demographic Transition = international migration • Technology: not as many farmers necessary • Move in search of new work • Stage 3 and 4 of Demographic Transition = internal migration • Destination of international migrants • Intraregional migration: from cities to suburbs
Gender of Migrants in the US • Historically males 55% of migrants • Since 1990’s 55% females • Represents changing status of Latin American women
Family Status of Migrants in the US • Most young adults (40% 25-39) • Few elderly (5% over 65) • Increasing number of Children (16% under 15) • Why? • Result of more women
US Immigration Historical Patterns and Impact
1. Colonial Immigration • From Europe and Africa • Who was voluntary? Who was forced? • 90% British • 650,000 West Africans to US
2. First wave of 19th Century Immigration: 1840-50’s • Push Factors: • 1st Northern and Western Europe • Entered Stage 2: overpopulation in cities • Famine in Ireland • Political instability • Germany: property rights (split equally among children, over years not much land for each child • Pull Factors • Cheap Farmland • Factory Jobs • Reaction: • Welcomed with open arms to the U.S. Were protestant and many spoke English.
3. 2nd wave of 19th Century Immigration: 1880’s-1900 • Push Factors: • Came from Scandinavia (northern Europe, sometimes called Norden). • Same push factors • Pull Factors • Cheap Farmland: settled Great Plains • Reaction: • Welcome! White, protestant, not English but learned quickly
4th Wave 1890’s-1920 • Much larger • Immigrants came from Southern and Eastern Europe. (Italy, Poland, Romania, etc) • Reaction: • Backlash. People angry: said don’t need any more immigrants. Country was full. Some truth to that, but was that the only reason? Some scholars say racism: Eastern and Western Europeans didn’t speak English, were Catholic (not protestant) more olive in skin tone…not white.
5th Wave Recent Immigration • Last 25 years • Record immigration • Asia and Latin America • Asians: Fleeing communism in SE Asia, Indians often highly educated in upper middle class jobs • Mostly to California (closer & Tech jobs), • Latin Americans: economic opportunities • Actually decreasing in recent years (documented)
Diffusion of European Culture • Indo-European languages spoken by 50% of world • Christianity most popular religion • Similar political systems in NA and Australia • Conflict • Relocation/discrimination of Native peoples • Superimposed Boundaries
Undocumented Immigration to the US • Undocumented Immigrants: illegal, unauthorized, immigrants • Estimate 11-12 million • 1.3 million caught yearly • Political Debates • What do you think? • Think…Pair…Share • How can it be bad for American Culture and Economy? • How can it be good for American Culture and Economy? • YOU MUST COME UP WITH A RESPONSE FOR BOTH!
Destination of Immigrants Documented Undocumented 25% CA 25% FL, TX 25% NY, AZ, IL, GA, NJ • 25% CA • 25%: NY, FL, TX