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Next generation library automation

Next generation library automation

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Next generation library automation

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  1. Next generation library automation and its implications for resource sharing Marshall Breeding Director for Innovative Technology and Research Vanderbilt University Library Nashville, TN USA

  2. Abstract • Many efforts are underway to re-conceptualize library automation in ways that  take into consideration the major shifts that have transformed libraries.  The library automation systems in use today emerged during a time when libraries primarily dealt with print collections.  But today we need automation systems that collapse the distinction between print and electronic formats, for example, and help libraries to efficiently manage their diverse collections.  It may also be time to reconsider the automation systems that support resource sharing.  Does the current arrangement of the circulation module from the ILS, interlibrary loan management systems, direct consortial borrowing systems, in conjunction with local, regional and global interlibrary loan brokering systems provide the most efficient means for resource sharing?  In an era where Amazon.com can offer one-click buying, it’s time for libraries to offer more efficient and user-friendly fulfillment systems for their resources.

  3. Library Technology Guides • http://www.librarytechnology.org • Repository for library automation data • Lib-web-cats tracks 39,000 libraries and the automation systems used. • Expanding to include more international scope • Announcements and developments made by companies and organizations involved in library automation technologies

  4. Lib-web-cats • Started building database in 1995 • Most comprehensive resource for tracking ILS and other library automation products • Many state library agencies do not keep accurate records of library automation data • Problem: how to resolve remaining “Unknown” libraries. • No Web site, no reliable e-mail contact

  5. LJ Automation Marketplace Annual Industry report published in Library Journal: • 2009: Investing in the Future • 2008: Opportunity out of turmoil • 2007: An industry redefined • 2006: Reshuffling the deck • 2005: Gradual evolution • 2004: Migration down, innovation up • 2003: The competition heats up • 2002: Capturing the migrating customer

  6. Recent Major Announcements Evidence that a new phase of library automation is unfolding

  7. Summon from Serials Solutions • New Discovery Service • Consolidated index harvested from many sources • ProQuest, Gale, etc • 300,000,000 articles represented • Full-text search + Citations • Local catalog data harvested, real-time link to holdings • Other local repositories harvested • Others available through metasearch

  8. WorldCat Local discovery service • Existing service in pilot stage for new discovery service • WorldCat.org data + ArticleFirst (30 million articles) • Agreement with EBSCO to load EBSCOhost citation data into WorldCat • Pursuing agreements with additional content providers

  9. WorldCat Local quick start • No-cost option to FirstSearch subscribers • No reclamation to reconcile local ILS with WorldCat • One ILS supported; must be among supported products • Program to expose thousands of libraries to WorldCat Local as a discovery option

  10. WorldCat Local automation platform • Extend WorldCat Local to include • Circulation • Delivery • Acquisitions • License Management • Positioned as Web-scale, cloud computing model, cooperative library system • Pilot sites being finalized; general availability in 2010

  11. Major Upheavals in Library Automation • Separation of discovery layer from library automation tools • Discovery systems • Shift in emphasis from Technology to Content • Open Source Challenging Proprietary ILS • Proprietary Automation systems respond with more openness • Development of new library automation framework • OLE – open source project for new automation platform • URM – Ex Libris – commercial project for new automation platform • Library Automation in the Cloud • OCLC WorldCat Local library system

  12. Open source in the Library automation sphere

  13. Open Source Library products • Integrated Library Systems • Koha, Evergreen, OPALS, NewGenLib • Repositories • Dspace, Fedora • Discovery Interfaces • Vufind • Blacklight • SOPAC (Social OPAC) • ILL • Relais (?)

  14. Impact of Open Source ILS • Non-open source systems still represent the vast majority of ILS implementations • Open source ILS a mainstream choice for new ILS procurements • Some libraries moving from traditionally licensed products to open source products with commercial support plans • Disruption of ILS industry • new pressures on incumbent vendors to deliver more innovation and to satisfy concerns for openness • New competition / More options

  15. More Open Systems • Pressure for traditionally licensed products to become more open • APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) let libraries access and manipulate their data outside of delivered software • A comprehensive set of APIs potentially give libraries more flexibility and control in accessing data and services and in extending functionality than having access to the source code. • Customer access to APIs does not involve as much risk to breaking core system functions, avoids issues of version management and code forking associated with open source models.

  16. Open Source Issues • Explosive interest in Open Source driven by disillusionment with current vendors • Seen as a solution to: • Allow libraries to have more flexible systems • Lower costs • Not be vulnerable to disruptions that come with mergers and acquisitions • Considered as a mainstream option • Total cost of ownership • Many claim genuine financial savings in OSS support vs licensed software • New business model based on services rather than software licensing

  17. New Generation of Library Interfaces

  18. Discovery product Trend • Initial products focused on technology • AquaBrowser, Endeca,Primo, Encore, VUfind • Mostly locally-installed software • Current phase focused on content indexes • Summon (Serials Solutions) • WorldCat Local (OCLC) • EBSCO Discovery Service (EBSCO) • All hosted services

  19. Working toward a new generation of library interfaces • Redefinition of the “library catalog” • Traditional notions of the library catalog are being questioned • Better information delivery tools • More powerful search capabilities • More elegant presentation

  20. Redefinition of library catalogs • More comprehensive information discovery environments • It’s no longer enough to provide a catalog limited to the traditional library inventory • Digital resources cannot be an afterthought • Forcing users to use different interfaces depending on type of content becoming less tenable • Libraries working toward consolidated search environments that give equal footing to digital and print resources

  21. Comprehensive Search Service • More like OAI • Open Archives Initiative • Consolidated search services based on metadata and data gathered in advance • Problems of scale diminished • Problems of cooperation persist • Products emerging with vast content components built-in: • Summon, WorldCat Local, EBSCO Discovery Service

  22. The holy grail of New Gen Library Interfaces • A single point of entry into all the content and services offered by the library • Print + Electronic • Local + Remote • Locally created Content

  23. New approach to search interface • Relevancy ranked results • The “good stuff” should be listed first • Users tend not to delve deep into a result list • Good relevancy requires a sophisticated approach, including objective matching criteria supplemented by popularity and relatedness factors. • Faceted Browsing • Drill-down vs up-front Boolean or “Advanced Search” • gives the users clues about the number of hits in each sub topic • Ability to explore collections without a priori knowledge • “Did you mean?” and other features to avoid “No results found” • Rich visual information: book jacket images, rating scores, etc. • More like this / related content

  24. Deep search • Increasing opportunities to search the full contents • Google Library Print, Google Publisher, Open Content Alliance, Microsoft Live Book Search, etc. • High-quality metadata will improve search precision • Commercial search providers already offer “search inside the book” • No comprehensive full text search for books quite yet • Not currently available through library search environments

  25. Beyond Discovery • Fulfillment oriented • Search -> select -> view • Delivery/Fulfillment much harder than discovery • Back-end complexity should be as seamless as possible to the user

  26. Next-generation Library automation

  27. Rethinking library automation • Fundamental assumption: Print + Digital = Hybrid libraries • Traditional ILS model not adequate for hybrid libraries • Libraries currently moving toward surrounding core ILS with additional modules to handle electronic content • New discovery layer interfaces replacing or supplementing ILS OPACS • Working toward a new model of library automation • Monolithic legacy architectures replaced by fabric of SOA applications • Comprehensive Resource Management “It's Time to Break the Mold of the Original ILS” Computers in Libraries Nov/Dec 2007

  28. ILS Reinvention projects • OLE Project • Funded by the Research in Information Technology program of the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation • 1-year project to produce the requirements for a new approach to library automation • Will embrace the service-oriented architecture • Business process modeling based on library workflows unconstrained from existing legacy software • Possible follow-on project to build and open source reference implementation • Ex Libris URM • Mentioned publically but not formally announced • Working toward new platform that better integrates print and electronic content • Probably will be based on some existing products

  29. Breaking down the modules • Traditional ILS • Cataloging • Circulation • Online Catalog • Acquisitions • Serials control • Reporting • Modern approach: SOA

  30. Comprehensive Resource Management • Broad conceptual approach that proposes a library automation environment that spans all types of content that comprise library collections. • Traditional ILS vendors: Under development but no public announcements • Open Source projects in early phases • Projection: 2-3 years until we begin see library automation systems that follow this approach. 5-7 years for wider adoption.

  31. SOA model for business automation • Underlying data repositories • Local or Global • Reusable business services • Composite business applications

  32. OLE Project Open Library Environment: Working toward a next generation library automation framework

  33. What Is SOA • SOA = Service Oriented Architecture • Design approach • Independent software pieces • Pieces can be interchanged or repurposed more easily • Pieces can be combined to create new services or systems • Business experts and IT experts work together • SOA Process • Create high-level map of how the business should work • Deconstruct workflows • Define reusable services • Recombine services into a system that meets our requirements

  34. Service Oriented Architecture http://www.sun.com/products/soa/benefits.jsp

  35. Legacy ILS + e-content modules End User Interfaces: Federated Search OpenURL Linking Electronic Resource Mgmt System Circulation Acquisitions Functional modules: Cataloging Serials Data Stores: Staff Interfaces:

  36. SOA for library workflow processes Composite Applications Reusable Business Services Granular tasks: Data Stores:

  37. OLE Reference Model

  38. OLE Project: Phase I • Planning and Design Phase • Develop Vision + Blueprint • Work with consultants with expertise in SOA and BPM • Instill community ownership of OLE • Recruit partners for Phase II

  39. OLE Team @ Duke

  40. Regional Workshops • Conduct business process modeling (BPM) exercises • Define library workflows which must be supported in OLE • Small group work to develop descriptions of library workflows • Workshop output will shape project design

  41. OLE Project:Phase II • Build project • Community source reference implementation • Create software based on OLE blueprint from current project • Build partners will have a high level of investment in OLE and will commit to implementation

  42. OLE Governance • Library Driven • Not vendor-driven • Interest in joining Kuali • Existing organization for non-profit status, legal support, user community

  43. Status and Next Steps • Recruit partners for Build Phase • Write Build Proposal • Complete OLE Blueprint components • Scope Document • Reference Model • Inventory of workflows / processes

  44. Competing Models of Library Automation • Traditional Proprietary Commercial ILS • Millennium, Symphony, Polaris • Traditional Open Source ILS • Evergreen, Koha • Clean slate automation framework (SOA, enterprise-ready) • Ex Libris URM, OLE Project • Cloud-based automation system • WorldCat Local (+circ, acq, license management)

  45. ILL and Resource Sharing In the Context of Next-generation Automation Systems

  46. Development of Resource sharing • Layered on top of ILS • Millennium ILS • INN-Reach • SirsiDynix URSA • ALEPH ILL • Fretwell-Downing VDX

  47. Current Resource sharing Automation • Very complex genre of software • Connect diverse systems • Difficult to address all needed functionality through standard protocols • Challenge to design systems to reduce cost of fulfilling a request

  48. Trends in ILL and Resource Sharing • Libraries under tremendous financial pressure • Most resource sharing programs expanding • Make up for diminished collection growth through increased resource sharing • Increased volume of requests • Improving percentages of fulfilled requests • Returnables and non-returnables

  49. Impact of Next-gen library automation • Better tools with next-generation automation • Beyond what’s been possible to do accomplish with library protocols • Z39.50, NCIP, ISO ILL • OCLC WorldCat • Record sharing policy will make a difference • Peer-oriented resource sharing

  50. Next Generation Resource sharing • Better discovery environments that span print and electronic resources • SOA will allow better tools for resource fulfillment • More options for supporting partnerships, consortia, and regional resource sharing • Cloud computing model • OCLC’s private cloud