Unit Art Unit 1 Art By: XieYongqing (下载整理)
Warming up --Brainstorming • If you were an artist, what kind of pictures would you paint? modern traditional realistic colourful pictures abstract religious
kinds of painting • oil painting • water color • landscape • cartoon • charcoal drawing • brush drawing • wash drawing • figure drawing • graphic art • imitating • life drawing • sketch
abstract--realistic • Abstract art contains no recognizable real-life objects but is more concerned with such painterly qualities as colour, texture, shape and line. Some painters are semi-abstract, such as much of Picasso’s art. • “Realistic” has been used to encompass all recognize figurative art, that is art in which objects are recognizable as real objects. This category covers many styles from
Abstract art • is defined as art that has no reference to any figurative reality. In its wider definition the term describes art that depicts real forms in a simplified or rather reduced way - keeping only an allusion of the original natural subject. The abstract paintings of Joan Miro are a good example of this wider definition. The term non-figurative is used as a synonym.
The Renaissance • This was a period in European history of great intellectual and cultural change and marks the end of the middle ages and the beginning of modern times. This period was determined by a renewal of interest in the art and culture of Ancient Greece and Rome (the classical period) and an educational system that valued the humanities ,athletics, science arts and craft, and athletics and sport. The Renaissance valued “free thought’ and the extension of knowledge in all fields. Great artists, writers, scientists and explorers proliferated in Europe during this time. A questioning of traditional values eventually led to a questioning of religious doctrines which culminated in the Reformation, when protestant religions developed to challenge Roman catholic doctrine.
Renaissance • The term adopted from the French equivalent of the Italian word rinascita, meaning literally "rebirth," describes the radical and comprehensive changes that took place in European culture during the 15th and 16th centuries, bringing about the demise of the Middle Ages and embodying for the first time the values of the modern world. • The consciousness of cultural rebirth was itself a characteristic of the Renaissance. Italian scholars and critics of this period proclaimed that their age had progressed beyond the barbarism of the past and had found its inspiration, and its closest parallel, in the civilizations of ancient Greece and Rome. • The term Renaissance, describing the period of European history from the early 14th to the late 16th century, is derived from the French word for rebirth, and originally referred to the revival of the values and artistic styles of classical antiquity during that period, especially in Italy.
During the interval of relative peace from the mid-15th century until the French invasions of 1494, Italy experienced a great flowering of culture, especially in Florence and Tuscany under the MEDICI. The brilliant period of artistic achievement continued into the 16th century--the age of Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Titian, and Michelangelo--but as Italy began to fall under foreign domination, the focus gradually shifted to other parts of Europe.
Influence of the Renaissance • The Renaissance lived on in established canons of taste and literature and in a distinctive Renaissance style in art, music, and architecture, the last often revived. It also provided the model of many-sided achievement of the creative genius, the "universal man," exemplified by Leonardo da Vinci or Leon Battista ALBERTI. Finally, the Renaissance spawned the great creative vernacular literature of the late 16th century: the earthy fantasies of RABELAIS(French humanist and writer ), the worldly essays of MONTAIGNE, the probing analysis of the human condition in the plays of William SHAKESPEARE.
Impressionism • French Impressionnisme, a major movement, first in painting and later in music, that developed chiefly in France during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Impressionist painting comprises the work produced between about 1867 and 1886 by a group of artists who shared a set of related approaches and techniques. The most conspicuous characteristic of Impressionism was an attempt to accurately and objectively record visual reality in terms of transient effects of light and colour. The principal Impressionist painters were Claude Monet, Pierre Auguste Renoir, Camille Pissarro, Alfred Sisley, Berthe Morisot, Armand Guillaumin, and Frédéric Bazille, who worked together, influenced each other, and exhibited together independently. Edgar Degas and Paul Cézanne also painted in an Impressionist style for a time in the early 1870s. The established painter Édouard Manet, whose work in the 1860s greatly influenced Monet and others of the group, himself adopted the Impressionist approach about 1873.
Impressionism is a light, spontaneous manner of painting which began in France as a reaction against the restrictions and conventions of the dominant Academic art. Its naturalistic and down-to-earth treatment of its subject matter, most commonly landscapes, has its roots in the French Realism of Camille Corot and others.The movement's name was derived from Monet's early work, Impression: Sunrise, which was singled out for criticism by Louis Leroy upon its exhibition.The hallmark of the style is the attempt to capture the subjective impression of light in a scene.The core of the earliest Impressionist group was made up of Claude Monet, Alfred Sisley and Pierre-Auguste Renoir. Others associated with this period were Camille Pissarro, Frederic Bazille, Edgar Degas, Gustave Caillebotte, Edouard Manet, and the American Mary Cassatt.
the impressionist style of painting • is characterized chiefly by concentration on the general impression produced by a scene or object and the use of unmixed primary colors and small strokes to simulate actual reflected light. Impressionist artist • The impressionist aim to capture the atmosphere of an instantaneous moment in time. The artist creates the effect of light on the surface of the subject using complimentary colour. Realizing that you cant reproduce natures effects in two dimension they result to using colour side by side (rather than mixed colour) to enhance the effect of a fleeting moment thus leaving the viewer to perceive colour in their mind
Impressionism • Impressionist art originated in France in the 1860s and dominated European in France and American art up to the end of the 19th century. Impressionist artists wanted to capture the way light plays on objects in nature. Main impressionist artists were Monet, Renoir, Sisley, Cezanne and Degas. From the 1880s onwards, artists began to move away from the pure impressionist theories and their style were described as post-impression.
Post-Impressionism • The Impressionist style was probably the single most successful and identifiable "movement" ever, and is still widely practiced today. But as an intellectual school it faded towards the end of the 19th century, branching out into a variety of successive movements which are generally grouped under the term Post-Impressionism. • Post-Impressionism is an umbrella term that encompasses a variety of artists who were influenced by Impressionism but took their art in other directions.There is no single well-defined style of Post-Impressionism, but in general it is less idyllic and more emotionally charged than Impressionist work.The classic Post-Impressionists are Paul Gauguin, Paul Cezanne, Vincent van Gogh, Henri Rousseau and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. The Pointillists and Les Nabis are also generally included among the Post-Impressionists.
Giotto di Bondone(1267 - 1337). • Florentine painter and architect. Outstanding as a painter, sculptor, and architect, Giotto was recognized as the first genius of art in the Italian Renaissance. Giotto lived and worked at a time when people's minds and talents were first being freed from the shackles of medieval restraint. He dealt largely in the traditional religious subjects, but he gave these subjects an earthly, full-blooded life and force.
Michelangelo ------Italian Renaissance sculptor, painter, architect, and poet who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art. • I cannot live under pressures from patrons, let alone paint. -- Michelangelo, quoted in Vasari's Lives of the Artists Delphes Sylphideceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Vatican City
Gigantic marble, started in 1501 and completed in 1504. • Michelangelo began work on the colossal figure of David in 1501, and by 1504 the sculpture (standing at 4.34m/14 ft 3 in tall) was in place outside the Palazzo Vecchio. The choice of David was supposed to reflect the power and determination of Republican Florence and was under constant attack from supporters of the usurped Medicis. In the 19th century the statue was moved to the Accademia.
The Holy Family with the infant St. John the Baptist (the Doni Tondo)c. 1503-05 (130 Kb); Tempera on panel, Diameter 120 cm (47 in); Uffizi, Florence
Creation of the Sun and Moon The Creation of Man (Fragment of the Sistine Chapel ceiling)1511-12
Tommaso di ser Giovanni di Mone Cassai (San Giovanni Valdarno 1401- Rome 1428). He was one of the most important painters of the 15th century and the founder of Renaissance painting. He took up the inheritance of Giotto, developing it according to the new techniques and methods of perspective, thus giving the human figure a completely new, freer and more concrete position in the world.
the series of frescoes in the Brancacci Chapel in Santa Maria del Carmine. They are considered to be the first real paintings of the Renaissance. Masaccio was to condense the ideas behind the new naturalistic revolution in his stories of St. Peter and the Original Sin: the space was divided up according to the rules of scientific perspective, light came from a precise direction and the shadows gave depth and great intensity to the figures; this was a holy story which found itself in the reality of the moment and was told with great simplicity.This cycle of frescoes found immediate fame and is extremely important in the history of painting Frescoes in St. Maria del Carmine - Brancacci Chapel
Edouard Manet • On the bridge between Realism and Impressionism is Edouard Manet. Born in Paris in 1832, he preferred a more classical approach to painting. However, his subject matter in paintings such as Le Dejeuner Sur L'herbe and Olympia gave him the reputation as a nonconformist. Manet places the Olympia we see in classical paintings in a contemporary setting rather than an allegorical one and she looks directly at the viewer. The refusal of the salon to show these paintings earned him the dubious title, "Father of Impressionism".
The Monet Family in Their Garden at Argenteuil, 1874Édouard Manet (French, 1832–1883)Oil on canvas; 24 x 39 1/4 in. (61 x 99.7 cm)Bequest of Joan Whitney Payson, 1975 (1976.201.14)
In the summer of 1874, Manet stayed at his family's house in Gennevilliers, just across the Seine from Monet in Argenteuil. The Monet family was living in a house that Manet had helped them find the year before. The two painters saw each other often that summer and Manet attempted twice to paint Monet and his wife Camille as Monet worked aboard his floating studio. While Manet painted the Monet family, Renoir painted beside him and Monet worked nearby. Monet painted Manet at his easel (present location unknown), while Renoir, like Manet, painted Madame Monet, Jean Monet, and the rooster (National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.). Monet later recalled that as Renoir painted, Manet glanced at his canvas from time to time, and at one point the older artist walked over to Monet and whispered: "He has no talent, that boy! Since you're his friend, tell him to give up painting!"
Claude Monet ---Impressionism French Impressionist painter, who brought the study of the transient effects of natural light to its most refined expression. Sunrise
1883 Monet settled at Giverny where he created a magnificent garden. This garden was the inspiration for most of his later work and inspired the series Water Lilies and the Japanese Bridge (begun in 1899). As age and deteriorating eyesight descended upon the artist his works lost almost all sense of form and are now referred to as 'Abstract Impressionism'. someone once said that Monet was "only an eye, but my God, what an eye." Monet died on December 5, was known to have said that he "feared the dark more than death." The only merit I have is to have painted directly from nature with the aim of conveying my impression in front of the most fugitive effects. Claude Monet
Wheatstacks (End of Summer)1890-91,Oil on canvas, 60 x 100 • Claude Monet is best known for his paintings of his garden at Giverny. In the 1890's he began to build a water garden around his house. There he painted his famous water lily paintings. By 1909 he had conceptualized an idea for a vast project of water lily canvases that would envelop an entire room. From 1916 almost until his death he worked on these canvases. He spoke of this endeavor, "In the night I am constantly haunted by what I am trying to realize. I rise broken with fatigue every morning." In these canvases perspective is reduced to the water lilies floating on the surface of the water.
Monet paints thick with strange combination of colour in later life probably because his eyesight was failing. He naturally was having difficultly coming to terms with blindness, every artist nightmare. he had an accurate memory for colour and would get his stepdaughter to help with the colour before applying it to the canvas. • Monet has crystallized a sound knowledge of the theories of colour perception, intentionally using warm nest to cool and yellow next to blue to vitalized his painting Garden at Sainte-Adresse "I prefer enjoying my bad sight, renouncing to paint if necessary, but at least see a bit what I like." Claude Monet
Haystacks at Chailly at Sunrise1865, oil on canvas, 30 x 60 cm San Diego Museum of Art
"My sensitivity, far from diminishing, has been sharpened by age, which holds no fears for me so long as unbroken communication with the outside world continues to fuel my curiosity, so long as my hand remains a ready and faithful interpreter of my perception." Claude Monet Poplars at Giverny
Rouen Cathedral: The Portal (in Sun), 1894Claude Monet (French, 1840–1926)Oil on canvas; 39 1/4 x 25 7/8 in. (99.7 x 65.7 cm)Theodore M. Davis Collection, Bequest of Theodore M. Davis, 1915 (30.95.250)
The Houses of Parliament at Sunset Water Lilies
Pierre Auguste Renoir • French Impressionist painter. He is recognized as one of the greatest and most independent painters of his period, and is noted for the brilliance of his colour and the intimate charm of his work, which takes in a wide variety of subjects. Unlike other Impressionists, he was as much interested in painting the human figure or portraits as he was in landscapes; unlike them, too, he did not subordinate composition and form to a fascination with rendering the effect of light.
Renoir was especially concerned with the play of light and shadow as they danced across the surface of an object. The fondness for impressionism exists today because these images capture forever the changing moments of time that we can all relate to in our contemporary world.
Raphael ---Italian painter whose works, including religious subjects, portraits, and frescoes, exemplify the ideals of the High Renaissance.
Raphael is best known for his Madonnas and for his large figure compositions in the Vatican in Rome. His work is admired for its clarity of form and ease of composition and for its visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur. • While we may term other works paintings, those of Raphael are living things; the flesh palpitates, the breath comes and goes, every organ lives, life pulsates everywhere.
Leonardo da Vinci (Italian, 1452–1519)ItalianCharcoal, black and red chalks; traces of framing line in pen and brown ink at upper right; 8 x 6 1/8 in. (20.3 x 15.6 cm) Head of the Virgin in Three-Quarter View Facing Right, 1508–12
This hauntingly beautiful drawing closely relates to an oil painting on panel of the Virgin and Child with Saint Anne from around 1508–12, and may have been a preparatory study for it. The head seen here appears to be exactly the size of the Virgin's head in the Louvre painting. The delicately finished drawing focuses on the atmospheric dissolution of her relieflike forms, and vividly illustrates the depth of Leonardo's explorations of optical phenomena late in his career. The artist would increasingly rely on complex pictorial techniques of drawing to articulate his scientific research on the perspective of color, the disappearance of form, and the gradations of light and shadow. Here, Leonardo reworked the charcoal and black chalk drawing with red chalk, especially evident in the face (but also extending less noticeably to the locks of hair in the underdrawing). He softly smudged all the strokes of drawing to achieve a seamlessly blended tone "in the manner of smoke" (fumo), as he called it in his notes. It conforms with the observable phenomenon of disappearing edges in the secondary planes of a perspectival space, a subject that he amply discussed in his scientific writings. Further preparatory studies for the Virgin and Child with Saint Anne composition are at the Royal Library (Windsor Castle), and these transform scientific principles into a pictorial language of magical force and nuance.
Fauvism • The word Fauvism comes from the French word fauve, which means "wild animals". And indeeed - this new modern art style was a bit wild - with strong and vivid colors. Paul Gauguin and the Dutch painter Vincent van Gogh had carried Impressionism to its limits by using expressive colors. Fauvism went one step further in using simplified designs in combination with an "orgy of pure colors" as it was characterized by their critics.
Gogh, Vincent Willem van (1853-1890), Dutch postimpressionist painter, whose work on canvas represents the archetype of expressionism, the idea of emotional spontaneity in painting. Self Portrait
Wheatfield with Crows (Auvers-sur-Oise, July 1890)Vincent van Gogh (Dutch, 1853–1890)Oil on canvas; 50.5 x 103 cm • Early in life he displayed a moody, restless temperament that was to thwart his every pursuit. By the age of 27 he had been in turn a salesman in an art gallery, a French tutor, a theological student, and an evangelist among the miners at Wasmes in Belgium. His experiences as a preacher are reflected in his first paintings on canvas of peasants and potato diggers; of these early works, the best known is the rough, earthy Potato Eaters (1885, Rijksmuseum Vincent van Gogh, Amsterdam). Dark and somber, sometimes crude, these early works evidence van Gogh's intense desire to express on canvas the misery and poverty of humanity as he saw it among the miners in Belgium.
Nursery on the Schenkweg, April 1882Vincent van Gogh (Dutch, 1853–1890)Reed pen and iron gall ink; brush and wash; touches of gouache and scraping on laid paper; 11 5/8 x 23 1/16 in. (29.6 x 58.5 cm)Bequest of Walter C. Baker, 1971 (1972.118.281) Van Gogh's first commission came from his uncle Cornelis Marinus, an art dealer, for drawings of views of the Hague, where he was then living. This large view of a nursery close to Van Gogh's studio was among those he sent.
Museum, AmsterdamThe Potato Eaters (Nuenen, April – May 1885)Vincent van Gogh (Dutch, 1853–1890)Oil on canvas; 82 x 114 cmImage courtesy of Van Gogh Museum Foundation, Amsterdam / Vincent van Gogh
Van Gogh's admiration for the Barbizon artists, in particular Jean-François Millet, influenced his decision to paint rural life. In the winter of 1884–85, while living with his parents in Nuenen, he painted more than forty studies of peasant heads, which culminated in his first multifigured, large-scale composition The Potato Eaters) (Rijksmuseum Vincent van Gogh, Amsterdam); in this gritty portrayal of a peasant family at mealtime, Van Gogh wrote that he sought to express that they "used the same hands with which they now take food from the plate to dig the earth." Its dark palette and coarse application of paint typify works from the artist's Nuenen period