A Measure of Equity Women’s Progress, Power, and Priorities Caryn McTighe MusilThe Association of American Colleges and Universities CCAS Conference – New Orleans Gender Issues Breakfast November 13, 2010
Three areas deans should consider as priorities • Who is coming to college? • What are women students majoring in? • How are women faculty faring?
First Priority • WHO IS COMING TO COLLEGE • WHO IS MISSING?
First Priority Who’s Coming To College, Who is missing, and why does it mattER?
Who is Completing High School*? *H.S. Completion refers to the earning of a H.S. diploma or its equivalent Sources: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey Report; American Council on Education, Minorities in Higher Education 22nd Annual Status Report: 2007 Supplement
Who is Completing H.S., by Race and Ethnicity*? *Comparable data for Asian American students not available Source: American Council on Education, Minorities in Higher Education 22nd Annual Status Report: 2007 Supplement
Who Is Transitioning to College? *Comparable data for Asian American students not available Source: American Council on Education, Minorities in Higher Education 22nd Annual Status Report: 2007 Supplement
The Socioeconomic Gap • It trumps race, gender, and ethnicity • High school completion rates for students whose family incomes were below $38,660=68% • High school completion rates for students whose family incomes were above $105,800=92% • That is a 24% gap
Are Women’s Gains Affecting Men’s Enrollment? Men’s rates of postsecondary degree attainment from associate’s degrees through doctoral degrees are higher than they have been since the early 1970s, and men still earn the majority of U.S. doctorates. Source: National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics 2006 and 2007
Which Men are Struggling? *Comparable data for Asian American students not available Source: American Council on Education, Minorities in Higher Education 22nd Annual Status Report: 2007 Supplement
Which Men are Completing College? In 2007, 27 percent of white men and women ages 18 and over held at least a bachelor’s degree. (At upper income levels, the gender gap does not exist.) Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2007
Are Other Notable Changes in Enrollment Occurring? In 2005, 4.2 million women attending college were age 25 or older, representing an increase of 18 percent in the last ten years. Source: National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics 2006 and 2007
Second Priority What Are Women Majoring in and with what consequences?
Where Are Women Earning Degrees? Sources: National Center for Education Statistics Digest of Education Statistics 2007 and NSF/NIH/USED/NEH/USDA/NASA Survey of Earned Doctorates 2006
In What Fields are Women Earning Degrees? Source: National Center for Education Statistics Condition of Education 2007
What you major in affects lifetime earnings “After graduation, gender segregation in college major choice is reflected in gender segregation the workforce, with significant economic consequences for women.” Andresse St. Rose OCWW issue on gender pay gap
What’s the big deal? • One year after entering the workforce, women make 80% of what their male peers earn. The figure drops to 69% after ten years. Dey and Hill, 2007 • A female college graduate will lose 1.2 million dollars over the course of her working life as a result of the gender wage gap. The figure jumps to 2 million for professional school graduates.
But Women Have Made Progress in the STEM fields…Right? Source: National Science Foundation, Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering. 2006.
Third Priority What are the front burner issues for women faculty?
My Top Choices • Advancement to tenure and promotion within ranks • Salary equity with their comparable male colleagues • Institutional support to off-set the current impossible task of balancing work and family obligations
Women Faculty • Who are the women? • Where are they located? • How are women faring?
Race and Ethnicity of Women Faculty Source: Source: National Center for Education Statistics Digest of Education Statistics: 2006
FACULTY: Tenured Women Faculty by Institution Type Women constituted less than a third (31%) of all tenured positions in 2005-2006 Source: AAUP. 2007. “Faculty Gender Equity Indicators”
AAUP Gender Equity Indicators • Employment status (full time vs. part time) • Tenure track options • Academic rank • Salary Source: AAUP. 2007. “Faculty Gender Equity Indicators”
Full-time Faculty in Degree-Granting Institutions Source: Source: National Center for Education Statistics Digest of Education Statistics: 2006
Employment Status • Women account for 39% of full-time faculty • The proportion of full-time faculty appointments are declining • The proportion of part-time, contingent appointments is increasing • Women account for a disproportionate number of these appointments Source: AAUP. 2007. “Faculty Gender Equity Indicators”
Average Salary for Women vs. Men • The average salary for women faculty was 81% of the amount earned by men • This comparison has remained steady since the 1970’s Source: AAUP. 2007. “Faculty Gender Equity Indicators”
What is the Relationship Between Family Life and Academic Career? Sources: Mary Ann Mason and Marc Goulden. 2004. Do babies matter? (Part II): Closing the baby gap.
Family and Marital Status of Women CEOs Source: American Council on Education. “The American College President”
FAMILY PROFILE OF COLLEGE PRESIDENTS Among presidents: 68% of women CEOs have children vs. 91% of men That is a 23% differential.
What obstructs the advancement of women faculty? • When women marry • When women have babies • When women come up for promotion Source: Mary Ann Mason and Mark Goulden, “Do Babies Matter? The Effect of Family Formation on the Lifelong Careers of Academic Men and Women. Academe 88(6):21-27
So What Can You and Your Institution Do About Any of This? Turn to the person beside you and name your single most effective strategy now in place to address any one of these three priorities about students, choice of majors, or advancing women faculty. Then name one intervention you think your institutions should invest in—with your help as a key leader.
Jane Addams "The good we secure for ourselves is precarious and uncertain until it is secured for all of us and incorporated into our common life."