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Antibiotics

Antibiotics

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Antibiotics

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  1. Antibiotics Ch 37

  2. Definition • Medications to treat bacterial infections • Ideally, culture of suspect area should be done BEFORE starting antibiotic

  3. Classifications • Sulfonamides • Penicillins • Cephalosporins • Tetracyclines • Macrolides • Aminoglycosides • Quinolones

  4. Uses • Treatment of exisiting infection • Prevention of infection

  5. Responses • Therapeutic – decrease in s/s of infection • Subtherapeutic – s/s of infection do not improve • Superinfection • Antibiotic resistance • Allergic reactions

  6. Actions • Bactericidal = kill bacteria • Bacteriostatic – slow or interfere with growth of bacteria

  7. Sulfonamides • Bacteriostatic • Treat: utis • Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) • URIs • Otitis media • Often in combinatiion • Bactrim, Septra, Pediazole, Gantrisin

  8. Sulfonamide Side Effects • Anemia, thrombocytopenia • Photosensitivity • Avoid tanning beds • Avoid sunlight • N-V-D • uriticaria

  9. Penicillins • Natural • Penicilllin G • Penicillin V • Aminopenicillins • Amoxicillin • Ampicillin • Penicillinase-resistant • Oxacillin • Nafcillin

  10. PCN Adverse Effects • Allergy • Rash, swelling, itching

  11. Cephalosporins • Semisynthetic • Related to penicillin • Bactericidal • 4 generations

  12. Cephalosporin Uses • Surgical prophylaxis • URIs • Otitis media

  13. Cephalosporin Examples • Ancef • Kefzol • Mefoxin • Ceftin • Rocephin – also used to tx meningitis

  14. Cephalosporin Side Effects • Similar to PCN

  15. Macrolides • Erythromycin • Zithromax • Biaxin

  16. Macrolide Uses • Strep infections • Mild-to-moderate URIs • Lyme disease • STDs

  17. Macrolide Side Effects • GI • N-V-D • Hepatotoxicity • Flatulence • anorexia

  18. Tetracyclines • Tetracycline • Vibramycin • Minocycline • Bacteriostatic action

  19. Tetracycline Uses • Syphilis • Lyme disease • Pleural & pericardial effusions

  20. Tetracyclines • Effectiveness reduced by • Dairy products • Antacids • Iron • Will discolor teeth • May slow fetal skeletal development

  21. Tetracycline Side Effects • N-V-D • Superinfection • Pseudomembranous colitis

  22. Aminoglycosides • Gentamicin • Kanamycin • Neomycin • Streptomycin • amikin

  23. Aminoglycosides • Poor oral absorption • No oral forms, only IV • TOXICITY cautions • Nephro • oto • Bactericidal action

  24. Aminoglycosides • Pseudomonas • E.coli • Klebsiella • Often used along with other antibiotics

  25. Quinolones • Cipro • Floxin • Levaquin • Tequin

  26. Quinolones • Excellent oral absorption • Antacids interfere with absorption • bactericidal

  27. Quinolones • Lower respiratory tract infections • Bone & joint infections • Infectious diarrhea • UTIs • Skin infections • STDs • Anthrax

  28. Quinolone Side Effects • HA • N-V-D • Allergic reaction

  29. Others • Vancomycin • Tx of MRSA • Must monitor blood levels • Caution: oto & nephro-toxic

  30. Nursing • Instruct pt to take meds for full length of time – do not stop when feeling better • Assess for s/s of superinfection • All oral antibiotics are better absorbed if taken with a minimum of 6 – 8 ounces of water