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Leviticus PowerPoint Presentation

Leviticus

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Leviticus

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  1. Leviticus The Priests’ Manual

  2. Types of Sacrifices • Sin offering. Got rid of contamination to sanctuary caused by transgressions • Burnt offering. Expressed worshipers deepest thanksgiving and dedication. • Peace offering. A meal shared by worshipping family. • Sacrifice of Christ on the cross expresses all three of these functions.

  3. Chief Events at Sinai (P) • Erection and dedication of tabernacle (Exod 25-31; 35-40) • Ordination of priesthood (Leviticus 8) • First sacrifice (Leviticus 9) • Fire came out from the LORD and consumed the burnt offering and the fat on the altar; and when all the people saw it, they shouted and fell on their faces. 9:24

  4. Old Calendars • Exod 23:14-17 • Unleavened bread • Harvest • Ingathering • Exod 34:18-26 • Unleavened bread • Weeks • Ingathering

  5. Later Calendar Leviticus 23 • Sabbath • Passover on 1-14 and Unleavened bread on 1-15 to 1-21 • Weeks • New Year on 7-1 • Day of Atonement on 7-10 • Feast of Tabernacles 7-15

  6. Day of Atonement (Lev 16) • Only time of year when High Priest allowed in Holy of Holies • High Priest offered bull as a sin offering for himself and his household • Blood from goat--purged sanctuary of defilement from transgressions; altar atoned for with blood from bull and goat • Goat for Azazel--sins of people carried away

  7. Sabbatical year; Jubilee year • Sabbatical or Seventh year • Jubilee after seven sabbatical years • “Proclaim liberty throughout the land” • Land returned to family which originally owned it • Yahweh alone owns land; we are resident aliens • slaves freed • no record of historical observance, but...

  8. Other Social Laws in OT • Exod 21: male slaves freed in 7th year; Deut 15 male+ female slaves freed in 7th year; Lev 25 slaves freed at Jubilee • Deut 15:1-6 debts cancelled in 7th year; Deut 15:7-11 Do not refuse a loan as sabbatical year approaches; Lev 25 debts cancelled at Jubilee • Lev 26:34; 2 Chr 36:21 land enjoyed its sabbaths during the exile

  9. Clean and Unclean • Holy--Common/Normal; Clean---Unclean • Health reasons? Trichinosis? Easily spoiled shellfish? • Avoidance of Canaanite/Babylonian practices? • Discipline (Letter of Aristeas)

  10. Clean and Unclean (cont.) • Pollution occurs when bodily processes disturb the harmony of the cosmos • Milgrom: life vs. death (blood, semen) • M. P. Carroll: nature and culture. (Animals which eat meat are trespassing in the realm of culture) • Many forbidden animals = the surrounding nations; few clean animals = the Israelites

  11. Kinds of unclean things • priestly contact with the dead 21:1-4 • women at childbirth 12:1-5 • skin diseases (psoriasis or fungal) chaps 13-14 (give person an appearance of death) • menstruation 15:19-24; genital discharges 15:2-12, 25-27 • animals that do not have cloven hoofs (camels) or that do not chew the cud (pigs-reviled in ANE; chthonic cults) chap 11

  12. History of Tabernacle • Tent in wilderness period (inside or outside camp) • Tent, or building, at Shiloh (Eli and Samuel) • Tent of David • Temple of Solomon • P’s account gives us cross section through this whole history 1.25 tons of gold; 4 tons silver; 3 tons of bronze

  13. Tabernacle • God “tabernacled” with Israel • Levites camped in inner circle • East: Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun (Leah’s children) • South: Reuben, Simeon (Leah’s children), and Gad (Zilpah-L) • West: Ephraim, Manasseh, and Benjamin (Rachel’s children) • North: Dan (Bilhah-R); Asher (Zilpah-L), Naphtali (Bilhah-R)

  14. Ark • Sign of Yahweh’s presence in Holy War • Arise, O Yahweh, and let your enemies be scattered (Num 10:35-36) • Cherubim on lid; deposited in sanctuary • Box to contain Decalogue (Deuteronomy) • Fate of ark? Jer 3:16-17; 2 Macc 2:4-8 (tent, ark, and incense altar) • Mercy Seat (post-exile)

  15. What Happened at Sinai Numbers 1:1-10:10 • 1 Census of first generation • 5:11-31 Ordeal for woman accused of adultery • 6:22-27 Aaronic benediction

  16. What Happened in the Wilderness Num 10:11-20:13 • 11:4-35 spirit of Moses put on 70 elders; Eldad and Medad prophesy in the camp • 12:1-16 Moses marries Cushite; Miriam leprous. “Has God spoken only through Moses?” • 13:1-14:45 spies: despising of the gift of the land led to death outside the land; alarm at strength of inhabitants

  17. What Happened in the Wilderness Numbers 10:11-20:13 • 16 Korah-Dathan-Abiram • Korahites vs. exclusive priesthood of Aaron [consumed by fire]; Dathan and Abiram vs. authority of Moses--Egypt was a land flowing with milk and honey [swallowed by earth] • 17 Aaron’s rod: Levites preeminent over other tribes • 20 Miriam dies; Moses and Aaron excluded from the land

  18. What Happened from Kadesh to the Plains of Moab Numbers 20:14-36:13 • 20:22-29 death of Aaron; Eleazar HP • 22:1-24:25 Balaam; Magic won’t work against Israel; archaic poetry • 25:1-5 Incident at Baal Peor • 25:6-18 Zeal of Phinehas • 26 Census of second generation • 27:1-11; 36:1-13 Daughters of Zelophehad