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Conflict, Barriers and Resistance in Consultation PowerPoint Presentation
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Conflict, Barriers and Resistance in Consultation

Conflict, Barriers and Resistance in Consultation

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Conflict, Barriers and Resistance in Consultation

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    1. Conflict, Barriers and Resistance in Consultation

    2. Conflict and Conflict Management

    3. Conflict: A Definition Any situation in which one person or group perceives that another person or group is interfering with his or her goal attainment Increases naturally as professionals begin working together Meeting some persons needs will often result in others needs going unmet Inherently neither good nor bad! Knowing ones own style of managing conflict is important

    4. Conflict Management Styles Competitive Style Avoidant Style Accommodating Style Compromising Style Collaborative Style Vary along dimensions of cooperativeness and assertiveness

    6. Conflict Management Styles Competitive: try to overpower others with whom you have contact and win the disagreement Relationships are low in importance Avoidant: try to ignore discrepancy between your own goals and those of others Own goals are unimportant

    7. Accommodating: set aside your own goals (give in) to ensure that others needs are met Relationships are more important than goals Compromising: give up some ideas and demand that others do the same Look for common ground Collaborative: requires commitment to relationships and goals Conflicts are seen as opportunities

    8. Barriers and Resistance in Consultation

    9. Time Limitations Scheduling Issues Novelty of Consultation Practical Barriers

    10. Congruence Among Expectations Goals for Consultation (examples?) Goals for Client (examples?) Expectations for Consultation Roles directive vs. collaborative consultant; active vs. passive consultee; confusion regarding data collection and plan implementation roles Others??

    11. Acceptability of Consultation & Interventions "Judgments by lay persons, clients... of whether treatment procedures are appropriate, fair, and reasonable..." (Kazdin) Factors Affecting Acceptability: Problem Severity Time Type of Treatment Approach Effectiveness Understanding

    12. Standardization Reduces verbal flexibility Reduces attention to nonverbal and affective messages Related to effective consultation outcome Important for assuring consultation integrity Permits efficient and effective training; Provides formal record of consultation Best Practices: Preserve integrity of consultation services Preserve important relationship factors

    13. Resistance Definition: An emotional response based on a rational or irrational fear or concern related to whatever change is proposed or occurring Resistance can be related to: the proposed change itself (values, orientation) the personal impact of the change (skill issues, effects on personal life) homeostasis (preference for sameness, fear of the unknown) other attitudes, affective issues

    14. Overcoming Barriers and Resistance

    15. Understanding Resistance Resistance to change is a natural human phenomenon! -- Try to see the others point of view. Resistance may be determined in part by the expectation of what will be gained and lost with a successful intervention (e.g., for consultee or client, change in behavior may result in a nonreinforcing outcome) May reflect attributions or beliefs that are incompatible with the behavioral intervention process (e.g., Kids should behave without rewards)

    16. Dealing with Resistance Know that it will occur, and be able to identify it! Maintain positive relations. Use consultees frame of reference. Maintain a systems orientation Identify and support informal leaders of the organization. Observe norms for communication and work within standard parameters.

    17. Identify Resistance Indicators of Resistance: Refusing to participate (not performing expected behaviors) Supporting without substance Displacing responsibility Deferring until a future time Relying on past practice Negative verbalizations

    18. Maintaining Positive Relations Helpful at organizational level; establishes consultants reputation as facilitative toward system goals. Use strategic interpersonal communication skills to structure the process; assertions and questions should offer support, extend discussion, initiate topics, etc. It is up to the consultant to develop facilitative, respectful partnerships with consultees, who must feel it is safe to discuss problems arising in their professional roles.

    19. Use Consultees Frame of Reference Individuals unique frames of reference affect their receptivity to change and sets parameters on their willingness to tolerate change If change message falls within an individuals tolerance level, change is possible -- if change is beyond the persons tolerance level, it is unlikely to be considered Determine the others tolerance range and propose only ideas that fall within it Examples: Relate the change to others knowledge and experience; propose changes that are within the others value system; use consultees language

    20. Social and Interpersonal Influence Strategies Chin and Bennes (1969) perspective on change in human systems French and Ravens (1959) bases of social influence and social power Sequential-request strategies (Martens et al., 1996)

    21. Chin and Bennes Empirical-Rational Approach Asserts that people are basically rational and will change their behavior when the change is justifiable to them on an intellectual level If a person thinks it is logical and important to change, he/she will do so if given the proper information Consultation technique using this approach is to disseminate information to the consultee (Knowledge is power)

    22. Chin and Bennes Normative-Reeducative Approach Assumes that people are active and depend on new knowledge as well as non-cognitive, sociocultural factors to decide whether or not to change Consultation strategies using this approach try to change consultees attitudes, values and feelings at a personal level, and norms and significant relationships at a social level e.g., make consultee aware of values and norms of the organization to change behavior Knowledge and people are power

    23. Chin and Bennes Power-Coercive Approach Assumes the consultee will change when presented with sanctions that are political or economic in nature, or when made to feel guilty or shameful for not changing Used when it is apparent that consultee believes it is not in his/her best interest to change Consultation strategy may involve informing the consultee that consultant is authorized to be present, with implication that consultee should follow consultants guidance

    24. Definitions: Social Influence: A change in the belief, attitude, or behavior of a target of influence, which results from the action or presence of an influencing agent Social Power: The potential for this influence to occur French & Ravens Bases of Social Influence and Social Power

    25. Six Bases of Social Power Coercive Power: Based on the consultees perception that the consultant can punish the consultee if he/she does not comply Reward Power: Based on the consultees perception that the consultant can reward the consultee if he/she complies Legitimate Power: Based on the consultees obligation to accept the consultants influence attempt because the consultee believes that the consultant has a legitimate right to influence the consultee, perhaps because of their professional roles or positions

    26. Expert Power: Based on the consultees perception that the consultant possesses knowledge or expertise in a specific area of interest to the consultee Referent Power: The consultants potential to influence the consultee based on the consultees identification with the consultant and/or desire for such identification Informational Power: The consultants potential to influence the consultee because of the judged relevance of the information contained in the consultants message

    27. French & Ravens Theory as Applied to Consultation Changed behaviors stemming from informational power can be maintained without continuing social dependence on the consultant the consultee has essentially internalized the new behavior and will continue in that manner even if the consultee forgets that the impetus for change came from the consultant For the other bases of power, changed behavior is socially dependent on the consultant (i.e., I am doing it this way because the consultant told me to do it this way...)

    28. I am doing it this way because the consultant told me to do it this way, and... ... I feel obligated to do as the consultant requests (legitimate power) ... the consultant knows what is best (expert power) ... the consultant has experience similar to mine, so we should see eye-to-eye (referent power) ... the consultant will punish me if I dont do it this way (coercive power) ... the consultant will do something nice for me if I do as he/she asks (reward power)

    29. Expert power tends to be highly restricted in range -- only a small number of areas of expertise are usually attributed to any one person Referent power has a wide range -- one who has accrued referent power can potentially influence the beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of another across many aspects of daily life The effectiveness of an influence attempt stems from the power base employed and how the consultant delivers it (i.e., choice of words, body language, facial expression) Use of humor, nonthreatening forms of request, and a polite manner, have been shown to enhance successful influence

    30. Sequential-Request Strategies Compliance gaining strategies wherein making an initial request is expected to increase the chances that a person will comply with a second request Foot in the Door (FITD) strategy: The initial request is small or trivial, and individual agrees to its performance When asked to comply with a second , larger request, individual is more likely to agree, presumably to maintain consistency in self-perceptions Door in the Face (DITF) strategy: The initial request is large, and individual does not agree to its performance When asked to comply to a second, smaller request, person agrees, presumably because a concession has been made and they feel compelled to make a concession also

    31. Martens et al. (1996) study: Consultees exposed to one of three experimental conditions in which they complied to a small initial request (FITD), failed to comply to a large initial request (DITF), or received no initial request Acceptability of an intervention was assessed (i.e., consultees were asked to implement a treatment for one hour on each of two consecutive days) Mean acceptability for consultees in DITF condition was significantly lower than controls; fewer consultees in DITF condition implemented the strategy Concluded that consultants should be cautious when using DITF strategy because any favorable perceptions that are produced by conceding ones position must overshadow the negative perceptions created from making what may have been an unreasonable request in the first place

    32. Other Ideas for Overcoming Barriers

    33. Consultee/Staff Training Topics: Consultation as a service delivery model Goals and expectations of consultation Potential interventions and outcomes Formal: Workshops Inservices Informal: Setting the stage Verbalizations within interviews Observations throughout plan implementation

    34. Improving Problem Identification Define problems to increase solutions: observable and concrete! Identify specific rather than global problems. Consider the use of reframing: Emphasizes the positive, adaptive functions of a behavior Define problem in environmental terms, rather than internal client characteristics

    35. Incentives and Reinforcement Administrative support Release time Career ladder in schools Individual recognition Moral support and praise throughout process Frequent, sincere reinforcement Inform supervisor if appropriate