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Chapter 18
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Chapter 18

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  1. Chapter 18 The Rise of Russia

  2. Before the Czars • Not really involved with outside world before the late 15th century • Mongol domination limited contacts • Let local administrators rule, but limited cultural and econ development • 1480 • Poland, Lithuania, and others • Western Contacts

  3. The Czars and Expansion • Duchy of Moscow • Ivan III • Orthodox and nationalism • Revival • Agricultural and peasant labor • Ivan IV (the terrible) • Killed Nobles for treason (boyars) • Third Rome • Supervision of all Orthodox Churches • Expansionist

  4. Ivan IV

  5. Expansionist patterns • Central Asia • Caspian Sea, Ural Mountains, Western Siberia • Cossacks • South to the Ottoman empire • Limits Nomadic Groups invasions • Multicultural

  6. Westerners and the Romanov Policy • The Ivans- increased, but managed Western contacts (trade centers with the British, Italian architects, etc.) • Ivan IV dies, not heirs • Chaos and fighting • Eventually Michael Romanov chosen from among the Boyars • Restores order and drives out invaders • Attempts to restore old Orthodox, before Mongols, exile all dissidents

  7. Westernization (1700’s) • Peter I (Peter the Great) • Traveled to the West and pushes Westernization (brings back artisans) • Autocratic Ruler • Western Military, Secret Police • Wars with Sweden and Ottomans • St Petersburg

  8. Westernization Con’t • Influenced much of Russian life • Politics, economics, and cultural change • Centralization of Power, bureaucracy • Law and Tax code changes (unification) • Mining and metallurgy • Early manufacturing • Upper class-shave beards, western clothes, attempts to improve education • Only for the wealth

  9. Catherine the Great • 1762-1796 • Weak rulers prior to her (Following Peter I) • Centralization and royal authority • Limits Westernization (no foreign political writings, more power of nobles over serfs, etc) • Westernization (patron of the arts, Western architecture, Enlightenment ideas) • Colonize Siberia, claim Alaska, explored down the coast of California • Crimea and the Black Seas

  10. Serfdom • Before the Mongols, peasants were relatively free • 16th and 17th centuries this was promoted by Csars, to keep nobles happy and maintain central authority • Most people were this, paid high taxes and performed tough labor • Like slaves, tied to land, even bought and sold • Eastern Europe as well as Russia

  11. Social Unrest • Peasants were unhappy with positions • Don’t try to increase production just to make landlords wealthier • Don’t blame the Czar though, blame landlords for living conditions • A number of revolts in the 17th Century, but all suppressed • Pugachev rising of 1770’s (reign of Catherine the Great)

  12. Pugachev uprising

  13. Trade and Economics • Most of Russia, Rural and Agricultural • Russia is a Great Land Empire • Not many artisans, very few cities • Nobles dominate and prevent strong commercial class • Still adequate revenue and growing population • Westerns conduct trade activities • Agriculture-still traditional