QUIT 4 C H A P T E R The Union in Peril CHAPTER OBJECTIVE INTERACT WITH HISTORY TIME LINE The Divisive Politics of Slavery 1 SECTION The Civil War Begins 2 SECTION GRAPH MAP The North Takes Charge 3 SECTION Reconstruction and Its Effects 4 SECTION VISUAL SUMMARY
CHAPTER OBJECTIVE HOME 4 C H A P T E R The Union in Peril To understand the events that led to the Civil War, the course and outcome of the war, and the establishment and eventual failure of Reconstruction
HOME 4 C H A P T E R The Union in Peril I N T E R A C T W I T H H I S T O R Y The year is 1850. Across the United States a debate is raging, dividing North from South: Is slavery a property right or is it a violation of liberty and human dignity? The future of the Union depends on compromise—but for many people on both sides, compromise is unacceptable. How can the Union be saved? Examine the Issues • Is it possible to compromise on an ethical issue such as slavery? • What are the obstacles to altering an institution, such as slavery, that is fundamental to a region’s economy and way of life?
TIME LINE 1851The Great Exhibition opens in London. 1852Franklin Pierce is elected president. Uncle Tom’s Cabin published. 1854Charles Dickens’s Hard Times is published. 1857The Supreme Court rules against Dred Scott. 1856James Buchanan is elected president. 1863Battles of Gettysburg and Vicksburg. 1860Abraham Lincoln wins presidential election.South Carolina secedes. 1861The Confederacy is formed. Civil War begins. 1861Russian serfs emancipated by Czar Alexander II. HOME 4 C H A P T E R The Union in Peril The United States The World continued . . .
TIME LINE 1868Ulysses S. Grant is elected president. 1868Cubans revolt against Spain. 1876Rutherford B. Hayes is elected president. 1876Japan forces Korea to open ports to trade. 1864Maximilian of Austria becomes emperor of Mexico. 1877Reconstruction ends. 1865Civil War ends.Lincoln is assassinated; Andrew Johnson becomes president. HOME 4 C H A P T E R The Union in Peril The United States The World
1 S E C T I O N The Divisive Politics of Slavery HOME KEY IDEA The issue of slavery leads to increased tension and violence between the North and the South and finally brings the nation to the brink of war. OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT
1 S E C T I O N The Divisive Politics of Slavery •Harriet Tubman •Franklin Pierce •Jefferson Davis •Dred Scott •Stephen Douglas •Abraham Lincoln •Confederacy •secession •Harriet Beecher Stowe •Underground Railroad •popular sovereignty HOME OVERVIEW MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW The modern Democratic and Republican parties emerged from the political tensions of the mid-19th century. Disagreements over slavery heightened regional tensions and led to the breakup of the Union. TERMS & NAMES ASSESSMENT
1 S E C T I O N The Divisive Politics of Slavery ASSESSMENT Event One Event Three Event Two Event Four HOME 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List four events that heightened tensions between the North and South. The Compromise of 1850includes a new fugitive slave law 1857, Dred Scott DecisionSupreme Court case causes sectional passions to explode 1852, Uncle Tom’s Cabinbook on slavery stirs strong reactions 1859, John Brown attacks Harpers Ferryattempt to start a slave uprising intensifies sectional feeling in the country continued . . .
1 S E C T I O N The Divisive Politics of Slavery ASSESSMENT HOME 2. Do you think there were any points at which civil war might have been averted? Think About: •the Compromise of 1850, the Fugitive Slave Act, and the Kansas-Nebraska Act •the new political parties •the Supreme Court’s ruling in the Dred Scott decision •the election of Abraham Lincoln as president in 1860 ANSWER POSSIBLE RESPONSES:• Yes. The Supreme Court made a major blunder in the Dred Scott decision.• No. The conflict was inevitable. continued . . .
1 S E C T I O N The Divisive Politics of Slavery ASSESSMENT HOME 3. John Brown, Harriet Tubman, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Stephen Douglas all opposed slavery. Who do you think had the greatest impact on American history and why? ANSWER Responses should reflect understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of each individual and an awareness of their contributions. continued . . .
1 S E C T I O N The Divisive Politics of Slavery ASSESSMENT HOME 4. How did the tension between states’ rights and national government authority manifest itself in the events leading up to the Civil War? ANSWER Popular sovereignty reinforced states’ rights. The Dred Scott decision convinced many Northerners that the slave states were influencing the national government. Lincoln’s election frightened supporters of states’ rights, because he believed that Congress could abolish slavery. End of Section 1
2 S E C T I O N The Civil War Begins HOME GRAPH MAP KEY IDEA The Civil War becomes a more prolonged, deadly conflict than anyone had predicted and has a significant impact on civilians, soldiers, and African Americans. OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT
2 S E C T I O N The Civil War Begins •Fort Sumter •Robert E. Lee •Clara Barton •income tax •Bull Run •Antietam •conscription •Emancipation Proclamation •Stonewall Jackson •Ulysses S. Grant HOME GRAPH MAP OVERVIEW MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW Shortly after the nation’s Southern states seceded from the Union, war began between the North and South. The nation’s identity was forged in part by the Civil War. Sectional divisions remain very strong today. TERMS & NAMES ASSESSMENT
2 S E C T I O N The Civil War Begins ASSESSMENT Military Actions Social & Economic Changes HOME GRAPH MAP 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the military actions and social and economic changes of the first two years of the Civil War. 1. Bull Run 1. African Americans join Union army 2. Shiloh 2. Food shortages in South 3. Antietam 3. Battlefield medicine 4. First income tax continued . . .
2 S E C T I O N The Civil War Begins ASSESSMENT HOME GRAPH MAP 2. What effects did the Civil War have on women and African Americans? Think About: •the impact of the Emancipation Proclamation •women’s role in the war effort ANSWER Opportunities expanded for both groups. For example, the Emancipation Proclamation allowed African Americans to fight for the Union, and new jobs, such as nursing, opened to women. continued . . .
2 S E C T I O N The Civil War Begins ASSESSMENT HOME GRAPH MAP 3. What advantages did the Union have over the South? ANSWER The Union had greater human resources, more factories, greater food production, and a more extensive railroad system. End of Section 2
3 S E C T I O N The North Takes Charge HOME KEY IDEA The South surrenders to the North. However, the war has an enduring effect on the nation and on American lives. OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT
3 S E C T I O N The North Takes Charge •Thirteenth Amendment •Gettysburg Address •John Wilkes Booth •Gettysburg •Vicksburg •William Tecumseh Sherman •Appomattox Court House HOME OVERVIEW MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW After four years of bloody fighting, the Union wore down the Confederacy and won the war. The Union victory confirmed the authority of the federal government over the states. TERMS & NAMES ASSESSMENT
3 S E C T I O N The North Takes Charge ASSESSMENT HOME 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List political, economic, physical, and social consequences of the Civil War. Freed enslaved people; prevented disintegration of Union Political Stimulated economic growth of the North and contributed to economic decline of the South Economic Consequences of the Civil War Widespread destruction of houses, livestock, and railroads in the South; increased industrialization in the North Physical Family life in both North and South disrupted by departure of millions of men to fight in the war and the high casualty rate Social continued . . .
3 S E C T I O N The North Takes Charge ASSESSMENT HOME 2. Grant and Sherman used the strategy of total war. Do you think the end justifies the means? That is, did defeating the Confederacy justify harming civilians? Think About: •their reasons for targeting the civilian population •Sherman’s march through Georgia ANSWER POSSIBLE RESPONSES: • Yes. Saving the Union and abolishing slavery were worth the cost of civilian lives. • No. Killing defenseless citizens is immoral under any circumstances. continued . . .
3 S E C T I O N The North Takes Charge ASSESSMENT HOME 3. How did Lincoln abolish slavery in all states? ANSWER Lincoln thought that a constitutional amendment would be necessary to abolish slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment was passed at the end of 1865. continued . . .
3 S E C T I O N The North Takes Charge ASSESSMENT HOME 4. Why did the Union’s victory strengthen the power of the national government? ANSWER It ensured that states would never again threaten secession. End of Section 3
4 S E C T I O N Reconstruction and Its Effects HOME KEY IDEA Reconstruction results in many political, social, and economic changes in the South before being ended in 1877. OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT
4 S E C T I O N Reconstruction and Its Effects •Freedmen’s Bureau •Radical Republicans •Andrew Johnson •sharecropping •Reconstruction •scalawag •carpetbagger •Hiram Revels •Fourteenth Amendment •Fifteenth Amendment •Ku Klux Klan (KKK) HOME OVERVIEW MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW After the Civil War, the nation embarked on a period known as Reconstruction, during which attempts were made to readmit the South to the Union. The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, passed as part of Reconstruction, gave civil rights to Americans of all races. TERMS & NAMES ASSESSMENT
4 S E C T I O N Reconstruction and Its Effects ASSESSMENT Problem Attempted Solution HOME 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List five problems facing the South after the Civil War. Then describe the solution that was attempted for each problem. Reuniting North and South Congressional Reconstruction Public Works Programs Physical devastation of the South Former slaves need assistance Freedmen’s Bureau established 40 acres and a mule plan Former slaves need land Enforcement Acts Vigilante groups arise continued . . .
4 S E C T I O N Reconstruction and Its Effects ASSESSMENT HOME 2. Do you think that Reconstruction had positive effects on Southern society? Think About: •the formation of the Ku Klux Klan •why so many African Americans turned to sharecropping ANSWER POSSIBLE RESPONSES: • Reconstruction’s positive effects include the Freedmen’s Bureau’s assistance to former slaves. • Reconstruction had negative effects: by trying to help former slaves it encouraged a backlash that intensified racism and led to the rise of the Ku Klux Klan; by not offering land to former slaves, it forced African Americans into sharecropping. continued . . .
4 S E C T I O N Reconstruction and Its Effects ASSESSMENT HOME 3. How did the Radical Republicans hope to reconstruct the South? ANSWER The Radical Republicans wanted to destroy the political power of former slaveholders. They also wanted African Americans to be given full citizenship, including the right to vote. End of Section 4