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Fortified: Existing Buildings

Fortified: Existing Buildings

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Fortified: Existing Buildings

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  1. Fortified: Existing Buildings • Broken out by perils • Hurricane • High-wind & Hail • Wildfire • Seismic • Freezing weather • Internal fire • Internal water • Flood

  2. Fortified: Existing Buildings • Up to three levels of designation • Each level should be a set of retrofit activities that: • Together provide a meaningful reduction in risk and vulnerability. • For Natural Hazards, correlated with different levels of events. • Can be accomplished incrementally to move from one level to the next

  3. Fortified: Existing Buildings Hurricane (Level 1) • Goal: Minimal damage and loss in Category 1 storm • Basic Requirement – Limit damage to roof and related water intrusion • Technical approach 1 – Reroof the right way • Re-nail the roof sheathing • Improve anchorage of roof deck/outlookers at gable ends • Reduce chances of attic ventilation system failure • Provide backup water intrusion protection for interior • Apply high-wind rated roof cover • Technical approach 2 – When reroofing does not make sense (Cover < 5 years old; Tile or Metal in good condition) • Reduce chances of attic ventilation system failure • Improve anchorage of roof deck/outlookers at gable ends • Apply acceptable closed cell foam adhesive in attic to all roof sheathing joints and to joint between sheathing and framing

  4. Fortified: Existing Buildings Hurricane – Level 2 • Goal: Minimal damage and loss in Category 2 storm • Basic requirements • Limit damage to roof and related water intrusion • Protect all openings and improve water intrusion protection • Strengthen large gable end walls and attached structures • Technical approach • All level 1 Hurricane requirements (approach 1 or 2) plus; • Provide protection for glazed openings (including permanent installation of anchors / tracks) • Protect entry doors from failures due to wind pressure or debris impact • Caulk and seal around openings, plan for water management • Protect garage doors by replacement or bracing • Strengthen gable ends over 4-feet tall (wall members and anchorage at top and bottom) • Improve anchorage and bracing of attached structures

  5. Fortified: Existing Buildings Hurricane – Level 3 • Goal: Minimal damage and loss in Category 3 storm • Basic requirements • Limit damage to roof and related water intrusion • Protect all openings • Strengthen large gable end walls • Improve structural connections throughout structure • Technical approach • All Level 1 (approach 1 or 2) and Level 2 Hurricane requirements plus; • Chimneys anchored to structure • Roof structure evaluated and strengthened to new model code requirements • Roof-to-wall connections strengthened to new model code requirements • Wall-to-foundation load path strengthened to new model code requirements • Windows replaced with pressure rated units • Garage door and tracks meet new model code pressure requirements

  6. Fortified: Existing Buildings High-Wind & Hail – Level 1 • Goal: Minimal damage and loss in Thunderstorm or EF-0 Winds • Basic requirement – Limit damage to roof and related water intrusion • Technical approach – Reroof the right way • Re-nail the roof sheathing • Improve anchorage of roof at gable ends • Provide backup water intrusion protection for interior • Apply high-wind and impact rated roof cover

  7. Fortified: Existing Buildings High-Wind & Hail - Level 2 • Goal: Minimal damage and loss in EF-1 Winds • Basic requirements • Limit damage to roof and related water intrusion • Improve key structural connections • Reduce risk of tree related damage • Technical approach • All Level 1 High-Wind & Hail requirements plus; • Improve anchorage of roof at gable ends • Brace gable ends • Chimneys anchored to structure • Anchor and brace porches, entry overhangs and attached structures • Prune trees to reduce risk of trees falling on house

  8. Fortified: Existing Buildings High-Wind & Hail – Level 3 • Goal: Minimal damage and loss in EF-2 Winds • Basic Requirements • Limit damage to roof and related water intrusion • Structural connections meet minimum requirements for engineering design using 110 mph design wind speed • Reduce risk of tree related damage • Technical approach • All Level 1 and Level 2 High-Wind & Hail requirements plus; • Roof structure evaluated and strengthened to 110 mph model code requirements • Wall-to-foundation load path strengthened to 110 mph model code requirements • Garage door and tracks meet 110 mph model code pressure requirements

  9. Fortified: Existing BuildingsWildfire – Level 1 • Goal: Minimize risk of structural fire from brush wildfire • Basic requirements • Fire resistant roof covering • Control of ember entry through vents, keep gutters free of debris • Reduce fire risk from vegetation close to house • Reduce risk from combustible materials near house • Technical approach • Class A fire-rated roof covering or assembly • Soffit and other vents covered with 1/8” to ¼” metal mesh screening • Overhanging tree branches cut back 10-ft from house • Move combustible material to an enclosed area 30-ft away from house • Prune trees to eliminate ladder fuels (fuel that allow fire to climb into upper portion of the tree)

  10. Fortified: Existing BuildingsWildfire – Level 2 • Goal: Minimize risk of structural fire from crown wildfire • Basic requirements • Fire resistant roof covering • Control of ember entry through vents, keep gutters free of debris • Protection of glazed openings • Reduce fire risk from vegetation and trees within 100-ft of house • Reduce risk from combustible materials and structures near house • Technical approach • All level 1 requirements plus install system to keep debris out of gutters • All windows are double pane with tempered outer layer • Maintain or remove plants that generate dead material next to house • Maintain 100-ft of defensible space around house • If you have open eave construction, plug openings, install a non-combustible covering, box in eaves with non-combustible materials

  11. Fortified: Existing BuildingsWildfire - Level 3 • Goal: Minimize risk of structural fire from wind driven wildfire • Basic requirements • Fire resistant roof covering • Control of ember entry through vents, keep gutters free of debris • Protection of glazed openings • Reduce risk of fire catching wall materials or soffits • Reduce fire risk from vegetation and trees within 100-ft of house • Reduce risk from combustible materials and structures near house • Technical approach • All level 1 and level 2 requirements • If house is sided with combustible material, re-side house with fire resistive siding • Decks made of fire resistive materials, no combustible fences within 10-ft of house, combustible yard structures located at least 30-ft from house

  12. Fortified: Existing BuildingsSeismic – Level 1 • Goal: Reduce non-structural damage in the event of a moderate earthquake • Basic requirements • Anchor water heater to wall structure • Restrain furniture, heavy objects, valuables • Restrain breakable objects on shelves • Reduce chances of broken glass • Technical approach • Strap water heater to wall structure • Fasten bookcases and cabinets to nearby walls • Install latches on cabinet doors and drawers • Secure electronic equipment, artwork and breakable items • Apply safety film to glass in windows and doors

  13. Fortified: Existing BuildingsSeismic – Level 2 • Goal: Reduce structural and non-structural damage in the event of a moderate earthquake • Basic requirements • Restrain water heater, furniture, heavy objects, valuables • Restrain breakable objects & reduce chances of broken glass • Reinforce cripple wall, including adding hold-down connectors in the corners of the house • Strengthen narrow walls on either side of garage opening • Anchor unreinforced chimneys • Technical approach • All level 1 requirements • Strengthen and anchor cripple walls and narrow walls on either side of garage opening • Anchor chimney to wall structure

  14. Fortified: Existing BuildingsSeismic – Level 3 • Goal: Reduce structural and non-structural damage in the event of a design basis earthquake • Basic requirements • Restrain water heater, furniture, heavy objects, valuables • Restrain breakable objects & reduce chances of broken glass • Reinforce cripple wall, including adding hold-down connectors in the corners of the house • Strengthen narrow walls around garage openings & anchor chimneys • Improve load path to foundations • Technical approach • All level 1 and level 2 requirements • Add anchor bolts with steel plates to tie walls to foundation • Add hold-down anchors to tie first floor corner studs to foundations • Secure post-and-pier foundation • Strengthen walls

  15. Fortified: Existing BuildingsFreezing Weather – Level 1 • Goal: Reduce chances of freezing weather damage when power is maintained • Basic requirements • Reduce chances of frozen pipes • Reduce chances of ice dams and water leaks in roof • Technical approach • Install frost proof faucets on all outdoor hose connections • Make sure hoses are disconnected and removed during cold weather • Seal air leaks in exterior walls near areas where water pipes exist • Seal around any concentrated heat sources in attic and improve insulation around potential heat sources • Install insulation around any exposed pipes in crawl spaces or basements

  16. Fortified: Existing BuildingsFreezing Weather – Level 2 • Goal: Reduce chances of freezing weather damage when power is lost • Basic requirements • Reduce chances of frozen pipes • Reduce chances of ice dams and water leaks in roof • Technical approach • All level 1 requirements • Make sure there are no water pipes in exterior walls • Insulate vents and walls in crawl spaces or basements • Install ice and water shield to roof deck along eaves that extends 24” inside exterior wall

  17. Fortified: Existing BuildingsInternal Fire – Level 1 • Goal: Reduce chances that a fire will be initiated in your home • Basic requirements • Reduce chances of fire initiated in walls • Reduce chances that fire will be initiated by lightening strike • Reduce chances that fire will be initiated by dryer • Early detection of fires / Ability to handle kitchen fire • Technical approach • Check outlets for loose connections (outlet and wires) • Install whole house surge protection, check/fix grounding • Isolate flexible gas lines from other metal systems and properly ground • Clean / replace dryer vent pipe • Install at least one wired smoke detector and system of detectors that all trigger when one triggers • Make sure charged BC Fire extinguisher is available in kitchen

  18. Fortified: Existing BuildingsInternal Fire – Level 2 • Goal: Reduce chances that fire will spread beyond a single room • Basic requirements • Provide means for controlling fire and hopefully putting it out • Technical approach • All level 1 requirements • Install NFPA D13 compliant home sprinkler system

  19. Fortified: Existing BuildingsInternal Water – Level 1 • Goal: Reduce chances of most common internal water leaks from fixtures and equipment • Basic requirements • Reduce chances of leaks/bursting water hoses • Reduce chances of water heater leaks • Reduce chances of water leaks from kitchen and bath fixtures • Check icemaker piping • Reduce chances of water leaks from A/C drain pan • Technical approach • Replace washing machine hoses with braided metal shielded hoses • Periodically drain water heater – check/replace anode • Check operation of all shutoff valves for fixtures • Check icemaker pipes for signs of deterioration – have replaced if needed • Clean A/C drain pan drain and possibly add second drain line

  20. Fortified: Existing BuildingsInternal Water – Level 2 • Goal: Reduce chances of large water losses if something does break • Basic requirements • Reduce chances of leaks/bursting water hoses • Reduce chances of water heater leaks • Reduce chances of water leaks from kitchen and bath fixtures • Check icemaker piping • Provide automatic shutoff of water in the event of a leak or A/C drain pan clogged drain • Technical approach • All of level 1 requirements • Install leak monitoring system with automatic shutoff of water supply • Install float shutoff control for A/C • Install shutoff and notify system for water heaters in attic or above living space

  21. Fortified: Existing BuildingsFlood – Level 1 • Goal: Reduce flood related damage from relatively common low level flooding • Basic requirements • Reduce chances of flooding and damage in basements • Reduce chances of flood damage in habitable space • Technical approach • Install sump pump in basement with battery backup • Use water resistant materials for wall and floor finishes in basement or in lower level of habitable space • No wall-to-wall carpeting in flood prone areas • Make sure all utilities are located above areas prone to flooding

  22. Fortified: Existing BuildingsFlood – Level 2 • Goal: Reduce chances that the home will flood to 1% per year (less than 40% in fifty years) • Basic requirements • Elevate habitable space • Minimize chances of damage to floor and walls • Minimize disruption/damage to utilities • Technical approach • All level 1 requirements as appropriate • Elevate such that lowest habitable space is at least 1-ft above base flood elevation (BFE) or advisory base flood elevation (ABFE) • Use water resistant wall materials, floor coverings, and insulation in any areas located below BFE or ABFE • Locate all utilities – electrical outlets, wiring, compressors, air handlers, ductwork, etc. above BFE or ABFE

  23. Fortified: Existing BuildingsFlood – Level 3 • Goal: Reduce chances that the home will flood to 0.2% per year (less than 10% in fifty years) • Basic requirements • Elevate habitable space • Minimize chances of damage to floor and walls • Minimize disruption/damage to utilities • Technical approach • All level 1 requirements as appropriate • Elevate such that lowest habitable space is above 500-year flood elevation • Use water resistant wall materials, floor coverings, and insulation in any areas located below 500-year flood elevation • Locate all utilities – electrical outlets, wiring, compressors, air handlers, ductwork, etc. above 500-year flood elevation