Chapter 5 Presentation skills Eng. Mohammad Alsumady
Outline • Why presentation is important? • Presentation elements • Presentation tools
Why presentation is important? • Interpersonal communication: one- to- one and one- to –group interaction: * Hiring employee (oral communication) * After hiring employees their workplace communication can take the shape of resolving customers complaint, working within a team, asking for a raise….. • Sometimes workers are expected to speak more formally by delivering presentations: * Introducing a new product to a group of potential customers.
Why presentation is important? * Making a proposal for on-site child care to a group of upper managers. * Making presentation about your thesis to get your PHD degree. • In today’s workplace, the ability to communicate effectively is one of the most important skills employees can possess. • Presentations are more likely to intimidate workers than other forms of communication.
Why presentation is important? • Fear of speaking in public is the NUMBER ONE fear of all fears, fear of dying is number seven! • 41% of people have some kind of speaking fear in front of group. • There is no greater skill that can help you build your career or business better than effective public speaking.
Presentation elements • Identify workplace presentation • Preview preparation steps • Select delivery styles
Presentation elements • Identify workplace presentation: • You may have to speak before a group of people at work. • Voice your opinion at a meeting addressing recent contract negotiations. • Maybe you have been asked to say a few words at retirement dinner for a co-worker. • Workplace presentation should not take the form of “lecture” to a full auditorium of listeners.
Presentation elements • Identify workplace presentation: In general workplace presentation fall into two types: 1-informativepresentations : Are intended to increase the level of knowledge and understanding among listeners, one purpose of informative presentation may be to instruct the audience. They are also used to describe something. Used to provide explanation that clarify how something works.
Presentation elements • Identify workplace presentation: 1-informativepresentations : Example: when a speaker takes the listener through a step- by – step process in order to teach them how to use new company voicemail system.
Presentation elements • Identify workplace presentation: 2-persuasive presentations : are designed to influence audience beliefs, opinions, or behaviors. they generally take the form of convincing, reinforcing, or actuating.
Presentation elements • Identify workplace presentation: 2-persuasive presentations : Example: members of workplace team may try to convince management that the existing performance evaluation system is not work effectively as it should.
Presentation elements • Identify workplace presentation: 2-persuasive presentations : Reinforcing presentations involves strengthen an existing belief an audience is already assumed to have. Actuating presentation seeks to move the audience to take action (want the audience to do something).
Presentation elements • Preview preparation steps To reduce your fear you need to make sure you properly and thoroughly prepare your self before you speak (reduce by 75%).
Preview preparation steps: 1.Determine the General Purpose (informative or persuasive). These purposes can be subdivided to identify your goal more precisely. 2.Analyze the Audience: taking a closer look at the composition of your audience. • demographic: age , gender, education, occupation…. • Non-demographic: why the audience there?, how much do they know about your subject?…. 3.Determine the Specific purpose. What's my message? response at the end of the presentation. For most audience members, the greatest concern they have when listening to presentation is” what is in this message for me?” “how will this information be of value to me”.
Presentation elements Preview preparation steps: 4.Identify the Central Idea:(core of presentation), it should be clear, concise (موجز)and focused for the audience. The presentation largely depends upon on it. Ex: The online monthly inventory (الجرد) can be completed in half the time by following four steps.
Presentation elements Preview preparation steps: 5.Identify the Main Points:Once the central idea has been written, you can determine the main points for the body of the presentation. Most speakers use(3- 5 main points). These points should be: direct, contains only one idea per point, establish a direct connection with the central point….Ex: point1 we do.., point 2, we do..,….
Presentation elements Preview preparation steps: 6.Gather Supporting Material:(After you have determined the main points, you are now ready to develop those points with factual information and evidence such as graphs, models or charts). Also, manuals, reports, catalogs, internet and library can be good resources for these supporting materials.
Presentation elements Preview preparation steps: 7.Organize the Outline: put all of your information together in a logical sequence. Outlines can take a variety of forms, depending upon the nature of your subject and purpose. Generally, 3 parts: 1-introduction which captures your audience's attention and identifies the nature and the purpose of the presentation. 2- the body which provides the verbal & visual supporting information and evidence to make the presentation clear and convincing. 3- the conclusion which bring closure to the presentation by providing a summary & appropriate closing comments.
Presentation elements Preview preparation steps: Rehearse (التدرب) the Presentation: be more dependent on yourself, more self confident, …
Presentation elements Select delivery style: There are four styles you should be familiar with: a. Manuscript: (مخطوطه) Provide all information in a printed papers. Should read word –for– word off the printed page. Reading an entire speech will make no mistakes, but it should be avoided because it would make your presentation lifeless. It can be bored to the audience (no eye contact). It can be used to avoid mistakes in the presentation. No problem in reading a quote for example.
Presentation elements Select delivery style: b. Memorized: Do not commit the whole speech to a memory (risky) Speakers tend to sound stilted, stiff, artificial and unnatural. Worry of forgetting some words. You can memorize a quote or two.
Presentation elements Select delivery style: c. Extemporaneous: (مرتجل) It’s the most versatile (متنوع) and most effective of all the styles. Requires to be properly, thoroughly prepared and well rehearsed. Delivers the speech in a conversational style with little reliance on notes. The audience feel as you are talking to them personally. It is the most effective style
Presentation elements Select delivery style: d. Impromptu: (مرتجل أنيا) Involves Speaking unexpectedly Not good idea to use this type for a presentation that demands preparation If you face an impromptu situation: state your point concisely (in brief), offer any information to clarify the point, make a brief statement to indicate closure. In a meeting, your boss may ask you about your opinion,…!
Presentation tools State Central Ideas Select Supporting Materials Construct Outlines Rehearse Delivery
The central idea called thesis of presentation, it is the controlling idea that identifies the essence of your speech. It prepares the audience for what is to come in the body of the speech. To be clear, concise (موجز) ,and focused for the audience. 1- Must expressed as a sentence. It cannot be stated as phrases or titles of a speech. Ex: “How to Handle Customer Complaints”. It does not represent a sentences, so it is not a central idea. Ex:” Handling Customer Complaints requires strong communication skills”. This is a central idea (clear for the audience). Central ideas should not be expressed as questions. State Central Ideas
2- It must contain only one key idea. Ex: “Laptops are convenience for business travelers, and they are also quit affordable”. This is not a single key idea. We can say a better central idea as: “ Laptops offer several advantages for business travelers”. 3- Must be stated in the introduction & the conclusion:In theintroduction :to capture listener interest and then states the central idea, so audiences know what to expect in the body of the presentation, and in the conclusion (for: i. restatement and reinforces the importance of the information the speaker has just shared with the audience. ii. Listeners will remember most what they hear last). State Central Ideas
4-Consist of two part: subject and focus Subject: States who or what the speech is about. Focus: States the key idea of the speech. In other words what does the speaker wish to emphasize about the subject. It is the key idea of the speech. The focus allows both speaker & audience to determine the main points in the body of the speech. Subject & Focus should not be too general or too specific. State Central Ideas
Examples: Ex: “Technological advances in workplace have changed the way workers work” Subject: (Technological advances) Focus: (changed the way workers work) Both are general & lack direction for both the speaker & the audience. Ex: “Email systems have revolutionized the way workers communicate with each other”. Both of Subject & Focus have been sharpened. Ex: “The view function on email allow workers to look at a document without actually opening it”. Too specific, there is little more the speaker can add.
Select Supporting Materials Supporting materials are use to make the presentation more easily understood, more interesting & more believable. A- Verbal: Examples: (Typical instances used to clarify a point) Explanation: (defines, supports, describes,..) Statistics: (Numerical facts that show relationships) Illustration: (Short stories; factual or hypothetical (imaginary but believable)). Testimony: (Quotes from experts in a given field) Comparisons: (Show similarities & differences. Comparison help listeners understand new concepts).
Select Supporting Materials B- Visual: Objects and models, Graphs, Chart, Slides, Handouts, Video, Photographs, Tables….. -Support what you say with what you see. How to decide the suitable type of visual and media of the presentation (flip charts, transparencies,…): 1. What is the nature of the subject? 2. What is the audience level of sophistication? 3. Where will the presentation take place? 4. What purpose is the visual intended to serve?
To maximize visual effectiveness: Keep simple ( only one visual with one information at a time). Keep large enough for the entire audience to see. Create “eye appeal”(نداء العين) by fonts, graphics and colors in imaginative way. Have a definite purpose in mind for using visual. Introduce the visual, explain it then put it away. Be certain you have the necessary equipments available and in working order before the presentation. Practice the speech using the visuals. Select Supporting Materials
After you have selected the most appropriate verbal and visual supports for a presentation, your next task is to organize your information in outline form. The outline consists of three major parts: The introduction. The body. The conclusion. Construct outline
The introduction: - It acts as a preview for the reminder of speech. -The speaker should begin by capturing the audience attention and encourage audience to listen, (startling with: facts, brief story, ask a theoretical question, quotation(اقتباس) or include appropriate humor...etc) - Listeners need to know how the information that follows will be of value of them. (tangible gain:المكسب الملموس): such as saving time or money, enhancing health or safety or making more informed decisions. - The speaker must state the central idea or thesis. - The speaker needs to preview the main points that will be developed in the body of the speech. Construct outline
The body: The body of the outline contains the speakers choice of main points, along with the necessary verbal supports. These main points should be expressed as parallel sentences, and each main point should be developed by at least three different verbal supports. In other words, resist the temptation|(قاوم اغراء) to use three testimonials(شهادات) for a main point. In stead, consider using one explanation, some examples & perhaps a testimonial or a comparison. Varying the choice or verbal supports not only makes the information more interesting but more easily understood as well. Construct outline
The body: Make connections between main points: Include transition words or phrases. Examples: “First, then , next”: used to single movement from one thought to another. Also you can use: “in addition, consequently, therefore, however, finally…”. Also you can use: “now that you understand the…”. Speaker must make sure that the main points in the body of their presentation are logically organized. Construct outline
The body: Common patterns (الأنماط) that used to give a coherent structure of the presentation: - Chronological (ترتيب زمني): organize information in a time sequence. E.g.: delivering a set of instructions, explaining a historical event,… Topical (ترتيب موضوعي ): divide information into logical group, categories or topics. E.g.: Discussing a various types of health insures to a company employee,… Spatial (ترتيب مكاني ): organizeinformation in the bases of physical location or how to link things together. E.g.: A speaker introducing a piece of machinery to a group of workers might describe the machinery in terms of its components parts & their relations to each other. Cause/effect: (causes and results) What might happen as a result of a specific cause. Problem/solution: discussion of a problems, effects, causes and solution. Construct outline
The conclusion: This section contains three major part : A summery of the main points. A restatement of central idea. Appropriate closing remarks. You can end your speech in the conclusion (after reviewing the main points & central idea ) with a quotation, a brief illustration, a humorous anecdote (حكايه فكاهيه), or refer back to an attention getter used in the introduction. Speakers should be direct and brief in the final portion of the speech, and no new information should be added. Construct outline
Develop a speaking outline.( avoid speaking directly from the detailed outline. A speaker outline is brief, it may be a small paper contains the main points or central idea, it may be a map. Try to use cards after numbering them. In cards you can use underlining or colored fonts. Try to use maps or block diagram. Practice out loud. (do not rehearse or read your notes silently).. It develop a conversational style of eye contacts, gestures, postures and expressions. Practice in front of an audience. (friends, family, co-workers). Rehears delivery:
4) Pay attention to your voice, speak loudly and clearly enough to be heard , do not speak too fast or too slow, avoid monotone delivery. 5) Pay attention to your body, (stand tall, weight distributed on both feet, posture that conveys confidence), be careful in your moving. Give an eye contact to each listener for 4-5 seconds,... 6) Cope with nervousness. Some advices: Be well prepared, accept that some tension before a presentation is natural, consider a practicing visualization, have a strong introductory and practice positive self talk several days before the presentation. Rehears delivery:
Introduction. Attention getter. Need for information. Central Idea. Preview of main points. II. Body 1st main point. Verbal support. Verbal support. Verbal support. Transition B. 2nd main point. Verbal support. Verbal support. Verbal support. Transition C. 3rd main point. Verbal support. Verbal support. Verbal support. Transition SKELTAL OULTINE III. Conclusion • Review main points. • Restate central idea. • Close memorably
Communication SkillsELE205 Creating an Effective PowerPoint Presentation Eng. Mohammad Alsumady
introduction presentation Design and way of providing information. Subject to be presented
Design and way of providing information. Outline: Hints for a successful presentation Effective PowerPoint Slides Text guidelines. Clip Art and Graphics Examples
Hints for a successful presentation • Plan carefully. • Do your research. • Know your audience. • Time your presentation . • Practice your presentation. • Speak comfortably and clearly.
Effective PowerPoint Slides • Use design templates • Standardize position, colors and styles • Include only necessary information • Limit the information to essentials
Effective PowerPoint Slides • Content should be self-evident • Use colors that contrast • Be consistent with effects, transitions and animation • Too many slides can lose your audience
Text guidelines • Generally no more than 6 words a line • Generally no more than 6 lines a slide • Avoid long sentences • Larger font indicates more important information
Text guidelines • Font size generally ranges from 18 to 48 point. • Be sure text contrasts with background. • Fancy fonts can be hard to read. • Words in all capital letters are hard to read. • Avoid abbreviations and acronyms. • Limit punctuation marks.
Clip Art and Graphics • Should balance the slide. • Should enhance and complement the text, not overwhelm. • No more than two graphics per slide.