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16. The bureaucracy

16. The bureaucracy

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16. The bureaucracy

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  1. 16. The bureaucracy

  2. What is bureaucracy? • Rule by officials • Indispensable, yet “illegitimate” • Two issues: • responsiveness: how to make bureaucrats accountable? • effectiveness: no competitive market to judge efficiency

  3. Delimiting bureaucracy:

  4. Weber’s model of bureaucracy • Division of tasks • Impersonal authority • Recruitment based on competence • Job security • Disciplined hierarchy

  5. Evolution: W Europe vs. US • Bureaucratization & modernization • From monarch’s personal service to public service • Depersonalization of administration

  6. US: more pragmatic • 19th century: from spoils system to merit-based • 1883: Pendleton Act → Civil Service Commission: recruitment & regulation of federal employees

  7. Reaching zenith: 20th century • Depression, World Wars → government intervention • W Europe: welfare state • ~1980: public employment - 1/3 of workforce (UK & Scandinavia)

  8. 1980s & 1990s: Conservative challenge • Fiscal crisis → Reagan, Thatcher • New style of bureaucracy: • Emphasis on efficiency & effectiveness

  9. Recruitment: how? • “Strong” vs. weak states • Generalist(S)vs. specialist(W) • Generalist (unified): civil service (not specific position) • Specialist (departmental): specific position

  10. “Representative bureaucracy” • Theory • Passive representation: bureaucracy ≈ population • Active representation: policies ≈ public preferences

  11. Organization • Department (ministry) • Division (department) • Non-departmental bodies

  12. Departments & divisions • Government department/ministry: various functions of the state (e.g., Ministry/Dep’t of Education) • Divisions: operating units (e.g., primary, secondary, higher education) • Hierarchical vs. autonomous (US)

  13. Non-departmental public bodies • Ambivalent position: created & funded by government, but only occasional control • State-owned enterprises (SOE) • Other statutory agencies • non-statutory organizations

  14. Regulatory capture • Arises when public agencies created to regulate a certain industry come to serve the interests of those they supervise • E.g., US state utility commissions

  15. Accountability • Internal controls vs. external scrutiny • Internal controls: • Ministerial direction • Formal regulation • Inter-departmental competition • Professional standards

  16. External scrutiny • Legislature & judiciary • Ombudsman • Interest groups & mass media

  17. Ombudsman • Public official appointed by the legislature to investigate allegations of maladministration in the public sector. • Originated in Scandinavia; emulated elsewhere

  18. NPM: New public management • Government is the problem, not the solution; NMP: • administration → management • government → governance • Where? Anglo-American & Scandinavia • Why? “Weak” states

  19. NPM: components • More discretion to managers • Setting explicit targets • resources ↔ results • Flexibility inrecruiting & training • Cost-cutting (more with less)

  20. New democracies • Legacy: over-powerful, corrupt & unaccountable bureaucracy • Task: shift to a Weberian model • Problematic for market • Progress: Civil Service Acts

  21. Authoritarian regimes • Bureaucracies play a crucial role • Sometimes a modernizing force • Typically a break to modernization • Communism: massive scale • Fascism: gov’t w/o administration