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Protecting infrastructure from hurricanes: PowerPoint Presentation
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Protecting infrastructure from hurricanes:

Protecting infrastructure from hurricanes:

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Protecting infrastructure from hurricanes:

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  1. Protecting infrastructure from hurricanes: Lessons learned about the importance and effectiveness of adopting and following modern building codes Tim Reinhold Institute for Business & Home Safety

  2. Design Standards for Manufactured Housing • Pre- 1976 • No standards, lots of singlewides • Generally very poor performance • 1976-1994 • HUD Code, more doublewides • Two design levels – not tied to modern wind std. • Better performance but lots of damage • Post 1994 • Wind zones 1-3 • ASCE 7-88 loads and wind map • Clearly superior performance

  3. Strengthening Codes Works

  4. Attached Structures

  5. New Commercial Structure in Punta Gorda

  6. Older Commercial Structure across street in Punta Gorda

  7. Windborne Debris Primary Sources: • Roofing Materials • Siding Materials • Vegetative Debris • Structural Components • Unsecured Items (Patio Furniture, Potted Plants, lawn ornaments, etc.)

  8. Elimination of Gravel Ballast

  9. Debris and Internal Pressures

  10. Punta Gorda City Hall & Annex • Mitigation Success • Annex in use • City Hall gutted

  11. Aggregate Losses for Charlotte County and Punta Gorda • All Building Permits: $1.8 Billion • Residential Garage Doors: $2.6 Million • Shingle Roofs: $114 Million • Tile Roofs: $87 Million • Residential Cages: $16 Million

  12. Roof covering and soffit failures lead to interior damage

  13. Roof Covering Failures - Tile Tile Roof Damage • Tile insufficiently attached to roof deck:

  14. Continuing Problems: Garage Door Failures • Failed primarily due to lack of reinforcement and track bracing for design pressures • Some were also damaged by windborne debris

  15. Continuing Problems: Double Entry Doors

  16. Continuing Problems: Gable Ends • Gable End Failures • Sheathing loss • Un-braced gables

  17. Reducing Hurricane Risks & Losses

  18. Conclusions • Buildings built under the latest codes where enforcement was good – generally performed well structurally (some exceptions) • Keys are: • Good up to date code • Uniform and thorough enforcement • Builders and subs who understand and appreciate the risks • Special inspections for key functions

  19. Benefit-Cost Studies for Building Codes • Texas A&M Study for TDI Code • For individual provisions large variability • For system of provisions B-C ~ 4 to 7 • Seismic Code Study for Utah and LA • B-C of 4.3 for Utah • B-C of 6 to 16 for LA

  20. Recommendations • Appropriate funds for National Windstorm Loss Reduction Program authorized last year • Increase support for NOAA / FEMA in wind field modeling • Increase support for NOAA in hardening and backing up ASOS stations • Add incentives for code adoption and enforcement • Add incentives for mitigation