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Organic Chemistry

Organic Chemistry

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Organic Chemistry

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  1. Organic Chemistry In a nutshell..

  2. Important Elements • CARBON is the most important element in organic chemistry • Also important… • Hydrogen • Oxygen • Nitrogen • Sulphur • Phosphorus • Chlorine

  3. C Covalent Bonds • Covalent bonds occur when electrons are SHARED between non-metals. • Carbon has 4 bonds Valence Electrons

  4. Other Bonds • Hydrogen one bond • Oxygen two bonds • Nitrogen three bonds • Sulphur two bonds (varies) • Phosphorus three bonds (varies) • Chlorine one bond • Bonds = # valence electrons needed to be Happy 

  5. One, Two, Three…. • Elements can form Single, Double, and Triple Bonds • Single bonds share 2 electrons • Double bonds share 4 electrons • Triple bonds share 6 electrons H H O O N N

  6. Hydrocarbons • Hydrocarbons are made up of hydrogen and carbon only. • They are divided up based on the number of bonds. • alkanes have Single Bonds • alkenes have Double Bonds • alkynes have Triple Bonds

  7. Prefixes • Prefixes are used to describe the number of Carbons in the compound. • Meth = 1 Carbon Eth = 2 Carbons H H H C C C H H H H H H H

  8. Prefixes • Meth 1 carbon Hex 6 carbons • Eth 2 carbons Hept 7 carbons • Prop 3 carbons Oct 8 carbons • But 4 carbons Non 9 carbons • Pent 5 carbons Dec 10 carbons

  9. Prefix + Suffix • MethaneEthylene H H H C C C H H H H H

  10. Functional Groups • Functional groups contain combinations of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, that are attached to the carbon chain and determine chemical properties. H H H H H C C C C C H H H H H H H

  11. Functional Group Examples • The –OH functional group is characteristic of all organic alcohols. H C H OH H Methanol: Meth = 1 carbon ol = functional group OH

  12. Functional Group Examples • The –COOH functional group is characteristic of all organic carboxylic acids H C OH O Methanoic Acid: Meth = 1 carbon oic acid = OOH functional group

  13. Benzene Ring H C H H C C C C H C H H

  14. H H H H H C C C C C H H H H H H H Name that Compound! Pentane

  15. H H C C C C C H H Name that Compound! Pentene

  16. H C C H OH H O Name that Compound Ethonic acid

  17. H C C C H H H Name that Compound Propyne

  18. Crystal Meth N-methyl-1-phenylpropan-2-amine