1 / 21

Unit One Review Foundations: 8000 BCE - 600 B CE

Unit One Review Foundations: 8000 BCE - 600 B CE. AP World History. Paleolithic vs Neolithic Neolithic Rev: 8000 BCE-3000 BCE. River Valley Civilizations Basic characteristics. Location in river valleys Complex irrigation Development of legal codes System of writing Use of money

Télécharger la présentation

Unit One Review Foundations: 8000 BCE - 600 B CE

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. Unit One ReviewFoundations: 8000 BCE - 600 BCE AP World History

  2. Paleolithic vs NeolithicNeolithic Rev: 8000 BCE-3000 BCE

  3. River Valley CivilizationsBasic characteristics Location in river valleys Complex irrigation Development of legal codes System of writing Use of money Number systems, calendars Social inequality: classes Patriarchal

  4. Early River Valley Civilizations Mesopotamia: cuneiform, powerful kings in city-states, Hammurabi’s code of law, job specialization, merchant class important; Tigris and Euphrates; ziggurats (Temples) Egypt: hieroglyphics, pharaoh as god, centralized, extensive bureaucracy, fewer merchants, priests have high status; Nile River; conflicts with Kush

  5. Early River Valley Civilizations Indus: complex, centralized, limited information known about them, priests high status (Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro) Shang: (Huang He/Yellow River) writing highly valued, geographic separation from others, centralized power in hands of emperor, job specialization

  6. Early Mesoamerica

  7. Olmec- 3500-2500 BCE • Two environments & Agricultural methods • Slash and burn agriculture • Irrigation river agriculture • 2 or more crops per year • Maize, beans, squash • Lowland river population became the elite • Chiefdom societies- rulers, elite, crafts-persons • Writing system but un-deciphered though indications of counting system- Maya used same counting system so this aspect is translatable. • Items of trade • Highlands- obsidian, jade and Magnetite, cacao (drink for nobility) • Lowlands- mollusk, turtle shell, sharks teeth, and pottery • 4 major redistribution/ceremonial centers- • Classic Maya- 2000- 800 BCE

  8. Development of trade routes Silk Road (blue) Indian Ocean (green) Sub-Saharan (red)


  10. Classical Civilizations: Basic Characteristics Patriarchal Agriculture Based Complex gov’t, Larger areas Expanded trading

  11. Classical Civilizations: Greece 1st Democracy Polytheist Divided into city-states (not centralized) Slavery widely practiced Strong military Alexander the Great: Hellenistic age Conquered by Romans

  12. Classical Civilizations: Rome For the most part conquer but don’t oppress Impressive roman law code Basic social divisions: patricians-aristocrats and plebeians-free farmers Dependence on slavery Leads to little technological innovation/development Three eras: Monarchy Republic: rule by aristocrats, Senate Empire: non-hereditary emperor

  13. Greece Agriculture based economy, but rocky terrain forced them to rely heavily on imports and trade Slave labor - caused decrease in scientific innovations because they provided cheap labor Rome Agrarian/Slave Based Economy Crops: Grains, Olives, Grapes Trade throughout empire Crops as taxes Some small manufacturing - tools/weapons/textiles Heavily reliant on imports Greek and Roman Economy

  14. Classical Civilizations: China Highly patriarchal, social divide urban/rural, silk road develops but merchants low class, bureaucracy, wealth based on land ownership Zhou: slowly deteriorated; Period of Warring States, Confucianism and Daoism developed to restore stability Qin: very harsh, Legalism, construction of Great wall; Shi Huangdi Han: strong centralized gov’t, great influence of Confucian, scholar-gentry

  15. Classical Chinese Philosophies • Confucianism - based on proper social order and relationships (ruler/subject; father/son; brother/brother; friend/friend; husband/wife); good people lead to good government; focus on family • Legalism - powerful and efficient governments will re-establish order (Qin dynasty) • Daoism/Taoism - focus on the Dao (“the way”); focus attention on nature and surroundings in order to remove onself from corruption

  16. Classical Civilizations: India Invaded by Aryans Hinduism based on books Vedas Caste System- much harsher, rigid than other class systems at the time Connections to Silk Road and Indian ocean trade Lack of political unity; easily invaded; hard to conquer and unite small kingdoms; tends not to be centralized or unified Mauryan: Buddhist, bureaucratic, public works ; decline b/c land returned to locals (Chandragupta; Ashoka) Gupta: Hinduism, allow local control and administration not bureaucratic; fall to invaders, rule returned to locals Decentralization allows fall not to be as drastic as others

  17. Classical Civilizations: The Fall Similarities: Attacks from Huns Deterioration of political institutions Protection maintenance of borders- costly, ineffective Disease followed trade routes Trouble collecting taxes, controlling landowners Differences: India regional gov’t broke apart Rome gradual, east stayed up (Byzantine) Order least impact to greatest: India: still had caste system, regional gov’t China: Confucian tradition, problems w/ central power gone Rome: civilization depended on gov’t to keep together, organized

  18. Common results for fall Disruption of trade Internal AND external problems Reliance on religion to organize people Spread of Buddhism, Christianity and Islam Political disunity Feudal societies develop

More Related