Deploying Windows XP ProfessionalRobert CameronEnterprise Platforms SupportMicrosoft Corporation
Benefits of Deployment • Lower total cost of ownership (TCO) • Quickly wipe a computer clean and install selected operating system • Quickly install an operating system to repair a computer • Ability for non-technical staff to install an operating system without staging • Reduced cost of deploying new hardware • Basic disaster recoverability
Choosing the Best Deployment Tool for Your Environment • Assess your current configuration • Choose an automated installation tool • Prepare for the installations • Customize the installations • Install the operating system
Windows XP Client Deployment Options • Unattended installation (unattended setup) • System preparation tool (Sysprep) • Remote Installation Services (RIS)
Unattended Installation • Winnt.exe • Winnt /u:unattend.txt /s:source path • Note: source path = location of files • Winnt32.exe • Winnt32 /unattend: unattend.txt /s:d:\i386 • Note: d: = CD-ROM drive letter • Clean installation • Upgrade installation
Unattended Deployment Using a CD • Advantages • Scripts can save time and money by eliminating the need for administrators to interact with each computer during installation • No network connection needed • Can partition or format drive during installation • Low resources (need only CD and boot floppy)
Unattended Deployment Using a CD (2) • Disadvantages • PC must support El Torito bootable CD-ROM • Need physical access to the system • Must have Winnt.sif on root of boot floppy • Have to use UDF for full automation
Unattended Deployment Over a Network • Advantages • Computer does not require a CD-ROM drive • Disadvantages • Boot floppy with real-mode NIC drivers • Slow • Hard disk must be initially preformatted as FAT or FAT32
Unattended Installation (Unattended Setup) • Most widely used form of deployment • This section will cover the following: • Setupmgr.exe • Deploy.chm • Ref.chm • Winnt.sif • Unattend.txt
Setupmgr.exe • Updated in Windows XP • Useful tool for creating answer files for the following: • Windows unattended installation • Sysprep installation • Remote installation services (RIS) • Create distribution folder
Distribution Folder • Created through Setup Manager • Required if you want to include drivers or files from the network • Does not apply to CD boot
Distribution Folder (2) • \i386 folder • The distribution folder that includes the i386 folder contents from the operating system and the following files and folders. • \$$Rename.txt file • An optional file that Setup uses during installations started in MS-DOS® to convert specified file names from short to long. Each subfolder in the distribution folder that contains file names that you want to convert from short to long must have its own $$Rename.txt file.
Distribution Folder (3) • \$OEM$ • A folder that contains all the additional files required to complete the installation. If you use the OemFilesPath key in the [Unattended] section of the answer file, you can create the \$OEM$ folder outside the distribution folder. • \$OEM$\Textmode • A folder that contains the hardware-dependent files that Setup Loader and text-mode Setup install on the destination computer during text-mode Setup. These files can include original equipment manufacturer HALs, mass storage device drivers, and the Txtsetup.oem file, which directs the loading and installing of these components. These files must also be listed in the [OEMBootFiles] section of Unattend.txt.
Distribution Folder (4) • \$OEM$\$$ • A folder that is equivalent to the %systemroot% or %windir% environment variables. You can use $OEM$\$$ to store additional files that you want copied to the folders in the Windows XP Professional system directories. For example, if you want to copy a file to the \Windows\System32 folder, place the file in $OEM$\$$\System32. • You can also use $OEM$\$$ to place files in a new directory (under %windir%) that is not part of the default Windows XP Professional directory structure. For example, if you want to copy OEM Plug and Play device drivers to a directory called \Windows\PnPDrvrs, place the device drivers in $OEM$\$$\PnPDrvrs.
Distribution Folder (5) • \$OEM$\$$\Help • A folder that contains the OEM help files to be copied to C:\Windows\Help during setup. • \$OEM$\$$\System32 • A folder that contains files to be copied to the C:\Windows\System32 folder during setup.
Distribution Folder (6) • \$OEM$\$1 • A folder that is equivalent to the SystemDrive environment variable. For example, if the operating system is installed on drive C, \$OEM$\$1 refers back to drive C. The use of a variable enables rearranging drive letters without creating errors in applications that point to a hard-coded drive letter. • \$OEM$\$1\PnPdrvrs • A folder that contains additional Plug and Play drivers that are not included with Windows XP Professional. You can replace the name of the folder (\PnPdrvrs) with any made-up name of eight or fewer characters. Make sure the name of this folder matches the name used in the OemPnPDriversPath entry in Unattend.txt.
Distribution Folder (7) • \$OEM$\$1\Sysprep • An optional folder that contains the files required to run Sysprep. Most users do not have to run Sysprep at the end of an unattended installation. • \$OEM$\Drive_letter • Each \$OEM$\Drive_letter folder contains a folder structure that is copied to the root of the corresponding drive in the destination computer during text-mode Setup. For example, files you put in an \$OEM$\C folder are copied to the root of drive C. You can also create subfolders in these folders. For example, \$OEM$\D\Misc creates a \Misc folder on drive D.
Deploy.chm • Contains detailed information on deployment tools such as: • Sysprep.exe • Setupmgr.exe • Winnt.exe and Winnt32.exe
Ref.chm • Contains detailed information of deployment parameters on tools such as: • Unattend.txt • Sysprep.inf • Highlighted syntax changes in Answer files since Windows 2000
Winnt.sif • It is the answer file that is used for performing an unattended clean or upgrade installation from a CD • Placed at the root directory of a floppy disk
System Preparation Tool (Sysprep 2.0) • Prepares the reference computer for cloning • Creates a unique Security Identifier (SID) for each cloned PC • Third-party cloning utility required to create image • GUI based
System Preparation Tool (Sysprep 2.0) (2) • Advantages • Installation time is greatly reduced because only one file (image) is used • Operating system and applications can be installed once and deployed via the image • Minimizes the wait time for Plug and Play
System Preparation Tool (Sysprep 2.0) (3) • Disadvantages • Not supported for upgrades • Hardware should be similar • To make changes, image must be recreated • Requires third-party disk imaging tool
Sysprep – Changes • Windows XP uses Sysprep 2.0 • Sysprep 2.0 has four “modes” • -factory switch • -reseal switch • -msoobe switch • -audit mode • Q302577, “HOW TO: Use Sysprep.exe Tool to Automate Successful Deployment of Windows XP” • Q282190, “Description of New Features in Sysprep for Windows XP”
Sysprep – Switches • - quiet • - nosidgen • - pnp • - reboot • - noreboot • - clean • - forceshutdown • - mini • - activated
Sysprep – Mass Storage • Sysprep 2.0 uses [Sysprep] and [SysprepMassStorage] by specifying the “BuildMassStorageSection=yes” parameter in the [Sysprep] section • You may also populate the [SysprepMassStorage] section manually • Reference: Q303786, “Missing [SysprepMassStorage] Section Causes STOP 0x7B Error Message on Windows XP Sysprep Images”
Sysprep – Requirements • Configuration must comply with the following guideline: • You must have third-party disk-imaging software that can create binary images of a hard disk installation • Location of files on hard disk must be the same for each of the following: • Sysprep.exe, Setupcl.exe, Sysprep.inf • The files will be located in %systemroot%\sysprep; they will be automatically deleted after running Sysprep
Sysprep – Files • Sysprep.exe • Enables user-specific customization when the computer is delivered or set up for the user • Sysprep.inf • Is the answer file that is used to automate the MiniSetup process • Uses the same INI file syntax and key names (for supported keys) as Unattend.txt • Setupcl.exe • Regenerates new security identifiers (SIDs) for the computer • Prepares the operating system for duplication and starts MiniSetup
Sysprep – Cmdlines.txt • Lists commands used to install applications or additional components during operating system installation • Occurs at the end of GUI mode of Setup and prior to last reboot • Applications are set up per computer • Place Cmdlines.txt in the $OEM$\$1\Sysprep\$oem$ folder • Set OemPreinstall=“yes” in Unattended section of the Sysprep.inf file to process $OEM$ folder • Example: Install hotfix at end of GUI mode Setup
Sysprep – GuiRunOnce • Section of the Unattend.txt file • Contains a list of commands that run the first time a user logs on to the computer after Setup has run • Applications are set up per user • Can set up GuiRunOnce to automate tasks such as installing the Microsoft Support tools from the support directory
Sysprep – GuiRunOnce (2) • Examples: • [GuiRunOnce] "%systemdrive%\sysprep\file name.bat" = "path-1\Command-1.exe""path-n\Command-n.exe""%systemdrive%\sysprep\sysprep.exe -quiet"[Identification] ;Join the computer to the domain ITDOMAIN. JoinDomain = ITDOMAIN • [GuiRunOnce] "%systemdrive%\appfolder\appinstall -quiet“
RIS • Advantages • Can control options with Group Policies • Riprep option • Simultaneously deploys on multiple clients • Disadvantages • Requires a Microsoft Active Directory™ network • PXE (Pre-boot eXecution Environment) or RBFG.exe compatible NICs only • Only works with images made from drive C • Not supported for upgrades
RIS Server • Boot Information Negotiation Layer (BINL) • Controls interaction between client and Active Directory • Trivial File Transfer Protocol Daemon (TFTPD) • Downloads initial operating system choices • Operating system chooser • Displays images
RIS Client Requirements Supported RIS Clients Computer Network Adapter Docking Stations Net PC or PC98 that meets PXE specifications Network adapter that supports PXE or the RIS boot disk Laptops in compatible docking stations Clients must also meet minimum Windows XP hardware requirements.
RIS (2) • RIS server serves as a distribution point for images • Operating system choices appear to a remote-boot enabled client computer RIS server -Operating system only-Marketing applications-Maintenance tools RIS client OS images Operating system choices
DHCP Domain Name Service Used to assign an IP address to a RIS client computer Locates the directory service Active Directory Locates RIS servers and client computer accounts Required Network Services
Client DHCP Server 1 2 3 6 5 4 RIS server Active Directory How RIS Works The client requests an IP address 1 The IP address is supplied by a DHCP server 2 3 The client contacts the RIS server The RIS server checks Active Directory to see if the client has been pre-staged 4 RIS responds or forwards the request to another RIS server 5 The RIS server sends a list of boot images to the client 6
F12 Initiating a Remote Installation When prompted, they press the F12 key The user turns on their computer Operating System for Accounting Department Operating System for Sales Department Operating System for Training Department After being authenticated, they receive a list of available images They then connect to the RIS server
How RISetup Works • RISetup • Similar to installing directly from CD, except the source files reside on RIS servers • Server-only application
-Operating System Only-Marketing Applications-Maintenance Tools • Reference computer provides a standard configuration • Remote Installation Preparation Wizard saves the image on the RIS server • RIS server serves as a distribution point for images • Operating system choices appear to remote-boot enabled client computers How RIPrep Works Reference computer RIS image RIS server Operating system choices RIS client computer
Dynamic Update (DU) • Updates drivers and replacement files • Downloads and uses critical content to enhance the Setup program • If connected to the Internet during setup, it prompts you to download critical content • Option to skip Dynamic Update during setup
Dynamic Update Examples • To specify in Unattend.txt: • [Unattend] DUShare=“Path to dynamic update share” • To run Setup and connect to the Dynamic Update share: • Winnt32 /DUprepare:path to dynamic update share
Additional Resources • Windows Resource Kits - Web resources • http://www.microsoft.com/windows/reskits/webresources • Deploying Windows XP Part I: Planning • http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/pro/techinfo/deployment/planning/default.asp • Q288344, “HOWTO: Unattended Installation of Third Party Mass Storage Drivers in Windows NT and Windows 2000” • Q250609, “INFO: Quick Guide to Preinstalling Windows” • Q314459, “How to Perform an Unattended Installation of Windows from a CD-ROM”
Additional Resources (2) • Q302577, “HOW TO: Use Sysprep.exe Tool to Automate Successful Deployment of Windows XP” • Q282190, “Description of New Features in Sysprep for Windows XP” • Q303786, “Missing [SysprepMassStorage] Section Causes STOP 0x7B Error Message on Windows XP Sysprep Images” • Q257813, “Using Sysprep May Result in ‘Stop 0x7b (Inaccessible Boot Device)’ on Some Computers”
Additional Resources (3) • Q313069, “Update for the Riprep Tool” • Q304314, “How to Deploy Windows XP Images from Windows 2000 RIS Servers” • Q287546, “ ‘Missing Files’ Error Message During Setup When Deploying Windows XP Images” • Q311220, “Description of the Dynamic Update Feature in Windows XP Setup” • Microsoft Security • http://www.microsoft.com/security
More Information for Service Providers • Windows XP White Papers • http://www.microsoft.com/serviceproviders/whitepapers/winxp.asp • Windows XP Deployment Guides • http://www.microsoft.com/serviceproviders/deployment/winxp.asp • Windows 2000 Deployment Guides • http://www.microsoft.com/serviceproviders/deployment/win2k.asp