History of English and Indonesian Lexicography DENY A. KWARY WWW.KWARY.NET 2010
Today’s Topics • History of English Lexicography • Bilingual beginnings • The first monolingual English dictionaries • The 18th Century • The 19th Century • The 20th Century • History of Indonesian Lexicography • Bilingual beginnings • The first monolingual dictionaries in Indonesia • Bilingual dictionaries in Java • Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia
1. Bilingual Beginnings (1) • Old English Period: • Murray (1900) traces the origins of English lexicography in many Latin documents in some monasteries that survive from the Old English period. • Glosses were collected into a document called a ‘glossarium.’ • Such early glossaries originally listed the words in the order in which they were read in texts. • As these manuscript lists came to be copied and re-copied, it was seen that their usefulness would be increased by putting the words and phrases into alphabetical order.
1. Bilingual Beginnings (2) • 1548: The Nature of herbes in Greke, Latin, Englishe, Duche & Frenche wyth the Commune Names that Herbaries and Apotecaries Use by William Turner. • 1587: Latin–English dictionary: Dictionarium linguae Latinae et Anglicanae by Thomas Thomas, 36 000 entries. • 1598: Italian–English dictionary: A worlde of wordes by John Florio (in 1611, its 2nd edition, retitled Queen Anna’s new world of words), 50 000 entries. • 1599: Spanish–English dictionary: Dictionarie in Spanish and English by John Minsheu Used to understand the language of the enemy.
2. The first monolingual English dictionaries (1) • 1604: The earliest monolingual English dictionary: Table alphabeticall . . .of hard usual English words, . . . gathered for the benefit & helpe of ladies, gentlewomen, or any other unskilfull persons, by Robert Cawdrey, 2500 entries. • 1616: English expositor by John Bullokar, 5000 entries. He introduced discursive comments on herbs and beasts. • 1623: The English dictionarie: an interpreter of hard English words by Henry Cockeram. He divided the vocabulary of English into two sections: ‘‘the choicest words now in use’’ and ‘‘the vulgar words.’’ There is also a third section, an encyclopedic guide to mythological figures and literary allusions.
2. The first monolingual English dictionaries (2) Thomas Blount vs. Edward Philips • 1656: Glossographia by Thomas Blount. Since Blount was a lawyer, this dictionary includes many legal terms and other technical words; 11 000 entries; the first English dictionary to attempt to explain the etymologies of English words. • 1658: The new world of English words by Edward Phillips. This dictionary borrowed heavily from Blount, though disparagingly criticizing Blount at the front of the dictionary. • Blount hit back with a pamphlet entitled A world of errors discovered in the new world of words, in which he showed that Phillips had not only made errors of his own, but had even copied errors from the Glossographia.
3. The 18th Century: Nathaniel Bailey • 1721: Universal etymological English dictionary by Nathaniel Bailey, a schoolmaster; 40 000 entries. • Bailey catered to the needs of readers of literature of the past by giving explanations of obsolete words used by Shakespeare, Spenser, and Chaucer. • Bailey’s dictionary was advertised as ‘‘for the Entertainment of the Curious as the Information of the Ignorant, and for the Benefit of young Students, Artificers, Tradesmen, and Foreigners.’’ • This dictionary established itself as the standard English dictionary for the early 18th century and went through 30 editions, the latest being published in 1802.
3. The 18th Century: Samuel Johnson • 1747: Plan of a dictionary of the English language. • 1755: Dictionary of the English Language. • Two volumes • 40 000 entries
4. The 19th Century • 1850: The two volume Imperial dictionary: English, technical and scientific by John Ogilvie. As its title suggests, it included technical and scientific vocabulary. • 1898: The five volume English dialect dictionary by Joseph Wright (1855–1930). It is based on Wright’s own research and on materials collected by the English Dialect Society. It contains vast numbers of traditional rural dialect terms, e.g. fair dinkum (which Wright found in Lincolnshire, meaning ‘a fair share of the work’).
5. The 20th Century: The OED • 1878: James Murray was appointed editor of The Oxford English Dictionary (OED). • 1928: A successful completion of the whole dictionary (600 000 entries) despite the death of Murray in 1915. • 1933: A supplement was published containing new words and corrections. • 1972–1986: A supplement to OED was published in 4 volumes, edited by Robert Burchfield. • The supplement and the original work, integrated as an electronic database, with support from International Business Machines Corp. (IBM) and the University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, were published in 20 volumes as the OED, 2nd edn., in 1989.
5. The 20th Century: The Five Main Strands • Monolingual dictionaries for adult native speakers. • Dictionaries for non native speakers of English. • Dictionaries for children – in particular, schoolchildren. • Dictionaries of slang, argot, cant, and informal English. • Dictionaries of special subjects, ranging from medicine, science, and philosophy to chess, cricket, and baseball. #2 will be discussed further in Week 11. #5 will be discusses further in Week 13.
1. Bilingual Beginnings • The beginning of the 15th Century: Chinese – Malay wordlist, 500 entries. • 1522: Italian – Malay wordlist by Pigafetta. • 1603: Spraeck ende wordboek, Inde Malaysche ende Madagaskarsche Talen met vele Arabische ende Turksche Woorden by Frederick de Houtman. • 1623: Vocabularium ofte Woortboek naer order vanden Alphabet in’t Duytsch Maleysch ende Maleysche-Duytsch, by Casper Wiltens and Sabastian Danckaerts.
2. The first monolingual dictionaries in Indonesia • In the 19th Century: Kitab Pengetahuan Bahasa by Raja Ali Haji from Riau. This dictionary was published by Al Ahmadiah Press Singapore in 1928. • 1930: Baoesastra Djawa by W.J.S. Poerwadarminta, C.S. Hardjasoedarma, and J.C. Poedjasoedira. • 1948: Kamoes Bahasa Soenda by R. Satjadibrata.
3. Bilingual Dictionaries in Java • 1876: Praktisch Javaansch – Nederlandsch Woordenboek by Jansz. • 1887: Nederduitsch – Soendasch Woordenboek by Oostings. • 1898: Nederlandsch – Madoereesch Woordenboek by Kiliaan.
4. Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia • First Edition, 1988, edited by Anton M. Moeliono; 62,100 entries. • Second Edition, 1991, edited by Harimurti Kridalaksana; 72,000 entries. • Third Edition, 2001, edited by Hasan Alwi; 78,000 entries. • Fourth Edition, 2008, edited by Dendy Sugono; 90,000 entries. cf. Oxford English Dictionary had 600,000 entries in 1928; and has reached 1,000,000 entries in 2009. cf. With less than 10 million speakers (<5% of the population of Indonesia), Dictionary of the Danish Language has already had 180,000 entries in 1956.
That’s All For TodaySee You Next Week Deny A. Kwary Airlangga University www.kwary.net