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Integrated Home Energy from Waste & Biomass

Integrated Home Energy from Waste & Biomass

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Integrated Home Energy from Waste & Biomass

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  1. Integrated Home Energy from Waste & Biomass Tom Horgan and Noa Simons February 6, 2009

  2. Executive Summary Introduction Preconception, Expectations, Distributed Generation Research Summary The State of Energy: Crude vs BTLTF Conversion Route Energy & Economic Comparisons Pyrolysis, Liquefaction, MTG, FT Synthesis Gasification: Analysis & Modeling Catalytic gasification, ionic liquids Integrated Home Energy System Outline

  3. Integrated Home Energy System (IHES) Concept Description Component Functions/technologies Phased Development Plan Estimated timeline/cost Additional Topics How do we find the “google in a haystack” Wrap Up Outline

  4. We propose to build and market an integrated home energy system. Multifeed – Biomass, MSW, Sewage “Clean Gasification” based Multiple energy conversion options (CHP fuel cell, Gas Gen, LF) Rationale: Lean (saves $), Green (recycle), Mean (self sufficiency) Clean Gasification - Enabling Technology for BTLTF Direct competition with crude products unrealistic Additional Discussion Biomass Research database is massive. How do we find the “Google in a haystack”? Executive Summary

  5. Preconception Alternative energy field was exploding with oil prices reaching $150/barrel in 2008 Modern science applied to BLTTF (Biomass To Liquid Transportation Fuel) has yielded research databases full of new concepts ready for advancement & commercialization Expectation Search databases, talk to scientists, down-select concepts, develop business plan and commercialize Introduction

  6. Reality Majority of research dollars to bioethanol and bio“diesel” Liquefaction, pyrolysis - low grade fuels for heating Low fraction of alkanes, upgrading methods in research phase FT synthesis only proven route to diesel Highly Capital Intensive (pure syngas), nonselective Methanol is doable – trouble as a transportation fuel MTG considered failed technology (durene) Gasification technology major obstacle for all three Inefficient (drying), expensive (multistep cleaning) Energy density of green biomass ¼ of crude (out of the ground) Introduction

  7. Distributed Generation Electricity generation ~33% efficient nationwide Household waste contains 30% of total energy used 50 kg/day can supply remaining electricity with heat in excess Core gasification technology development required for all biomass conversion processes Homeowner saves money, goes green and increases sense of self sufficiency Introduction

  8. Usage & Losses The State of Energy

  9. World Oil Reserves – “Proven” vs “Unproven” The State of Energy

  10. Market Opportunity The State of Energy

  11. Comparing Fossil & Biomass Fuel Conversion Fossil Fuel: Millions of years worth of algae (crude) & biomass (coal) cooked and condensed by the earth Biofuels: Wood, sludge, farm waste, etc that needs to be dried and converted Crude Oil (raw) – 42.7 MJ/kg Gasoline - 43.5 MJ/kg (~80%) Diesel - 42.8 MJ/kg (~85%) Biomass/Solids – 6/20 MJ/kg MTG Gasoline - 43.5 MJ/kg (< 50%) FT Diesel - 42.8 MJ/kg (< 60%) 5 to 15x more input energy The State of Energy

  12. Liquefaction & Pyrolysis Do not synthesize transportation grade fuel without upgrading (undeveloped) Pyrolysis oils are product is corrosive Biopetrol model is liquefaction of sludge to fuel oil/burn on site – business plan claims 1yr ROI Dynamotive works with multiple customers on retrofitted applications (bigger/stainless steel pumps, motors etc) Research Summary

  13. Fischer Tropsch Synthesis Gasification Synthesis Upgrading Research Summary

  14. Fischer Tropsch Synthesis- Chain growth a function of temp, pressure, catalyst type & condition, reactor design Exothermic reactions lead to poor temp control and wide distributions Slurry reactors are best but suboptimal Microchannel reactors may play but still new (Velocys) The more pure the syngas the better (even for CO2 and N2) Dilute syngas leads to large reactors (higher cost) Research Summary

  15. Methanol Synthesis Research Summary Natural Gas Desulph SMR 2H2 + CO CH3OH 50 Atm, 270C Copper Oxide Catalyst H = -92 kJ/mol Gasifier Cleaning Coal or Biomass Steam O2, Air Syngas (H2, CO (CO2, N2)) Compressor Methanol Convertor Cooling/ Distillation Methanol Syngas Recycle Loop Purge Gas MTG Process

  16. Methanol Synthesis Methanol Demand 37%  formaldehyde (resins/glues for particle board and ply wood) 21%  MTBE (gasoline additive that reduces exhaust emissions) 14%  acetic acid (chemicals for adhesives, coatings and textiles) Used directly as a fuel… Burns cleaner than gasoline (Higher Octane) Corrosive to engine parts, gaskets, etc Slower burning (advance ignition time) Cold starting an issue (lower vapor pressure) Absorbs water Research Summary

  17. Methanol to Gasoline Research Summary 2CH3OH CH3OCH3 + H2O 320C Alumina CH3OCH3  H2O + C2 – C5, alkenes, cycloalkanes, aromatics 400/420C Zeolite Light HC, CO2, H2

  18. Methanol to Gasoline Product Composition The aromatic portion is at the high end of the gasoline spec (6/29%) Aromatics are about 20% Durene – low melting point (icing). Separation is expensive. Actual efficiency 44% (Hamiton). Research Summary

  19. Gasification First step in FT, methanol, MTG, FC, generator Biomass is heated under low oxygen conditions (Atmospheric, > 600C) Steam sometimes added Volatile material driven of leaving char, steam and tars Char reacts with air and steam to form syngas (H2, CO, others) Research Summary

  20. Gasification Reactors – Small Scale Downdraft Gasifier Outside dimensions (w/ hopper): 4ft h x 1.5ft d Syngas production rate: ~ 35 ft3/lb of 15% wood Max Capacity: ~700 lbs wood/day - 1000 ft3/h (320 MJ/h) Outlet Temp: 50/75C after cyclone/filter $2300 Assembled $1400 Not Assembled Research Summary

  21. Gasification - Issues Gasification rated primary barrier to commercialization of BTLTF System Very pure syngas required (essentially H2/CO) Systems diluted with N2, CO2 lead to large reactors Substantial Cleaning & Scrubbing required Biomass variability leads to syngas variability Holy Grail: Robust Gasification Gasification System that receives ANY carbonaceous feedstock and returns pure syngas with tunable H2/CO ratio. Research Summary

  22. Ionic Liquids Dissolution of wood Argyropoulos to Write Proposal on… Dissolution of Sludge Catalytic Cracking of Pyrolysis Products Catalytic Gasification To be included in future discussions with NREL Research Summary

  23. Economic/Energy Comparison Research Summary

  24. Conclusions Competing with crude on transportation fuels is a very tall order Electricity has higher value and is easier to achieve w/ biomass Gasification is core technology for both BTLTF and electricity generation Distributed generation competes with electricity on site using waste & wood (or NG) Integrated Home Energy System Research Summary

  25. Household Mass Balance (Family of 4) Integrated Home Energy Food Water Paper Plastics MSW 8 Kg/day ~91 MJ/day Water Sewage 290 GPD 0.1% Solids ~ 7 MJ/day Average Usage: ~320 MJ/day Waste: ~ 100 MJ/day (~30%)

  26. Quick Energy Calcs (Avg Household, 4 people) Usage: 320 MJ/day 60% Electric, 40% Thermal Annual Cost: $1800 (~ $5/day) Waste = 30% of Total Usage (92% MSW, 8% Sewage) Fuel Value Comparison ($/1000 MJ, Trillion MJ) Conclusion: Make Electricity from MSW, Wood, Coal or NG Integrated Home Energy

  27. Concept Integrated Home Energy Wood Chips Syngas Mechanical Grinder/Mixer MSW Dewater WGS N2/CO2 Removal Water Sewage Dryer/ Pellitizer Gasifier Cleaning/ Scrubbing Air Slag

  28. Concept Integrated Home Energy 2 kW Syngas Generator Mechanical Grinder/Mixer Wood Chips, MSW, Sewage Dewater WGS N2/CO2 Removal Dryer/ Pellitizer Energy Storage Syngas Gasifier Cleaning/ Scrubbing Air Slag Start Up

  29. IHES Component Functions Feed preparation/pretreatment Wood (20%): Chipped/dried MSW (50%): Ground/dried (pellitized?) Sewage (99%): Dewatered, dried, ground Gasification Supply Heat & Syngas Generator: Particulate & tar free FC: Particulate & tar free w/ CO < 1% BTLTF: Particulate & tar free, H2/CO tunable, N2/CO2 free Integrated Home Energy

  30. IHES Component Functions Combined Heat & Power Gasifier: Heat for drying & residence Generator: Electricity to residence & storage FC: Electricity to residence and storage. Heat to residence and drying Energy Storage Battery Pack: Provide start up power Provide power when no fuel available Integrated Home Energy

  31. Component Technologies Mechanical grinding/mixing/shredding Wide availability at industrial scale Biomass Shredders may also work for MSW Residential Scale Shredder ~ $600 (Home Depot) Continued research on integrated designs Feed Drying Feed drying improves efficiency but not required for biomass (probably required for MSW) Heat produced exceeds household demands Integrated heat exchanger to provide drying energy Integrated Home Energy

  32. Component Technologies Pelitizing Cost of Pellitizing shredded MSW may be offset by efficiency & gas quality improvements More research – implement in later phases Manure Briquettes Dewatering Required if sewage is used but energy content does not justify expenditure Integrated Home Energy

  33. Component Technologies Gasification Specs: Atmospheric, air blown, direct heated, 5kW Numerous technologies available. Requires full scale evaluation process for down selection Many more… Integrated Home Energy

  34. Component Technologies Gas Cleaning/Scrubbing Initial: Cyclone (particulate), cold water quench followed by sand filter Research more advanced cleaning technologies for later phases N2/CO2 Removal Enabling technology for residential scale (microchannel) Fischer Tropsch process Membrane filter technology: Integrated Home Energy

  35. Syngas Conversion Comparison Gas Generator Efficiency: Unknown on Syngas CHP: Gasifier yes, Generator no Other: Use NG generator, off-the-shelf gasifier Fuel Cell Efficiency: > 30% Electric, > 80% Overall, ~ 60% w/ Gasifier CHP: yes Other: built in desulph, tar cracking Liquid Fuels Efficiency: ~ 50% overall with significant development CHP: yes Other: Microchannel, N2/CO2 removal Integrated Home Energy

  36. Overall Approach Contact NREL for Concept Evaluation Visit Community Power & NREL 2/15 Evaluate additional gasification technologies for residential scale and down select Integrated Home Energy

  37. Phased Development Plan Phase 1: Proof of Concept Simple DD Gasifier/Gas Generator Downselect gasifier & gas generator technology Purchase chipper/gasifier/generator & test in Saratoga 3 to 6 months, < $15,000 Phase 2: Prototype Development MSW Gasification/Gas Generator Develop/test methods of MSW prep for gasification Assess need for pellitizer/additional drying/advanced cleaning Develop prototype skins/frame/etc Purchase additional gasifier 2 to 4 months, < $10,000 Integrated Home Energy

  38. Phased Development Plan Phase 3: Advanced Concept Development Advanced Gasification Purchase H2, CO sensor or GC Integrate shift catalyst/steam and controls Test on fuel cell in cooperation with Plug Power 1 to 2 years, < $100,000 Phase 4 – Advanced Concept Development Transportation Fuel Synthesis Evaluate CO2 and N2 removal technology Evaluate microchannel technology 3 to 5 years , < $1 million Integrated Home Energy

  39. How do we find the “google in a haystack”? How do we get people to come to us with ideas? Rapid Concept Evaluation Berkshire Energy Laboratory Additional Discussion

  40. Integrated home energy system is marketable technology (< $10K in 5 years) Gasification development supports future, large scale work Need a lab and team to search the biomass research database Conclusions

  41. Backup Slides

  42. Fuel Value The State of Energy

  43. The State of Energy 1% of All Biomass On Earth (~ 50 cubic miles proven reserves as of 2008) =

  44. Fischer Tropsch Synthesis- Gasification – covered as a separate topic FT Synthesis Reaction Chemistry Research Summary

  45. Fischer Tropsch Synthesis- Product Distribution Research Summary • Low Temp FT • 200/240C • Cobalt • waxes • Hi Temp FT • 300/350C • Iron • liquids

  46. Fischer Tropsch Synthesis- Reactor Design Types Research Summary

  47. References: “Bio-syngas production with low concentrations of CO2 and CH4 from microwave-induced pyrolysis of wet and dried sewage sludge” by Diminguez et al (2007) Research Summary

  48. Methanol Synthesis Commercial Production mainly from NG (coal) Max Thermal Efficiency ~65% Single pass 25%, Exothermic, Thermo constraints Research Summary

  49. Gasification Reactors - Industrial Research Summary

  50. Residential Systems Develop commercially viable residential scale product for conversion of wood/biomass to electricity System Concepts Gasifier/SynGas Generator Gasifier/Methanol Convertor/Generator Gasifier/Fuel Cell Research Summary