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International Business Strategy, Management & the New Realities Cavusgil, Knight & Riesenberger PowerPoint Presentation
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International Business Strategy, Management & the New Realities Cavusgil, Knight & Riesenberger

International Business Strategy, Management & the New Realities Cavusgil, Knight & Riesenberger

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International Business Strategy, Management & the New Realities Cavusgil, Knight & Riesenberger

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  1. International BusinessStrategy, Management& the New RealitiesCavusgil, Knight & Riesenberger Chapter 19 Financial Management and Accounting in the Global Firm International Business: Strategy, Management, and the New Realities

  2. International Financial Management The acquisition, management, and use of funds for cross-national trade, investment, and other commercial activities. It involves: • Conducting transactions in various currencies; • Operating in environments characterized by significant risk, capital flow restrictions, and varying accounting and tax systems; • Seeking and accessing funds from banks, bond markets, stock exchanges, venture capital firms, and intra-corporate sources, located worldwide. International Business: Strategy, Management, and the New Realities

  3. International Financial Management Tasks • Decide on the Capital Structure.Determine the ideal long-term mix of debt versus equity financing. • Raise funds for the firm. Acquire equity, debt, or intra-corporate financing for funding activities and investments. • Working Capital and Cash Flow Management. Manage funds passing in and out of the firm’s value-adding activities. • Capital Budgeting. Assess financial attractiveness of major investment projects (e.g., foreign market expansion). • Currency RiskManagement. Manage multiple-currency transactions and exposure to exchange-rate fluctuations. • Manage the Diversity of international Accounting and Tax Practices. Operate in a global environment with diverse accounting practices and international tax regimes. International Business: Strategy, Management, and the New Realities

  4. Task One: Decide on the Capital Structure • Capital structure: the mix of long-term equity financing and debt financing firms use to support their international activities. • Firm obtains equity financing by selling shares of stock to investors or byretaining earnings. • Shares of stock provide an investor with an ownership interest, that is, equity, in the firm. • Debt financing comes from either loans from banks and other financial intermediaries or money raised from the sale of corporate bonds. International Business: Strategy, Management, and the New Realities

  5. Task Two: Raising Funds Global money market: financial markets where firms and governments raise short-term financing. Global capital market: financial markets where firms and governments raise intermediate-term and long-term financing. • Most funding is longer term. The global capital market is the meeting point of those who want to invest money and those who want to raise funds. • Main advantage of the global capital market: ability to access funds from a wider range of sources at lower cost. International Business: Strategy, Management, and the New Realities

  6. The Global Capital Market is Huge and Growing (as of 2006) • International issues of equity in world securities markets were about $380 billion, up from $83b in 1996 and just $14b in 1986. • Stock of cross-national bank loans and deposits was $18,916b, up from $7,205b ten years earlier. • There were $17,574b in outstanding international bonds and notes, up from $3,081b in 1996. • This is the ‘globalization of finance’. • Main facilitating factors: Deregulation of global finance; advanced ICTs; globalization of business International Business: Strategy, Management, and the New Realities

  7. Sources of Funding 1: Equity Financing • The firm obtains capital by selling shares of stock. In exchange, the shareholders obtain a percentage of ownership in the firm and, often, a stream of dividends. • Global equity market: the worldwide market for equity financing -- stock exchanges worldwide where investors and firms meet to buy and sell shares of stock. International Business: Strategy, Management, and the New Realities

  8. Sources of Funding 2: Debt Financing • In debt financing, a firm borrows money from a creditor in exchange for repayment of principal and an agreed upon interest amount in the future. Debt financing is obtained from loans and bonds. • International Loans. The firm may borrow money from banks in its home market or abroad. • Eurocurrency Market is money deposited in banks outside its country of origin, mainly U.S. dollars, “eurodollars”. Other eurocurrencies include euros, yen, and pounds, banked outside the home country International Business: Strategy, Management, and the New Realities

  9. Bonds: A Major Source of Debt Financing • A bond enables the issuer (borrower) to raise capital by promising to repay the principal along with interest at a specified date. • Global bond market is the international marketplace where bonds are bought and sold, primarily via banks and stockbrokers. • Foreign bonds are sold outside the bond issuer’s country and denominated in the currency of the country in which they are issued. • Eurobonds are sold outside the bond issuer’s home country and denominated in its own currency (e.g., when Toyota sells yen-denominated bonds in Europe) International Business: Strategy, Management, and the New Realities

  10. Sources of Funding 3: Intra-Corporate Financing • Funds provided from sources inside the firm in the form of equity, loans, and trade credits. Trade credit arises when a supplier of goods and services grants the customer the option to pay later. • Advantages: Often the lowest-cost capital; minimizes the transactions costs typical of obtaining funds from other sources; has little effect on the parent firm’s balance sheet; avoids risk of debt financing; avoids ownership-diluting effects of equity financing. International Business: Strategy, Management, and the New Realities

  11. Task Three: Working Capital and Cash Flow Management • Working capital: the current assets of the firm. • Working capital management aims to ensure cash is available where and when it is needed. • Cash flow needs arise from everyday business activities, such as paying for labor or materials. • Cash is generated from various sources and must be transferred from one part of the MNE to another. • International financial managers devise various strategies for transferring funds within the firm’s worldwide operations, to optimize global operations. International Business: Strategy, Management, and the New Realities

  12. Methods for Transferring Funds within the MNE • Through trade credit, a subsidiary defers payment for goods and services received from the parent. • Royalty payments: remuneration paid to the owners of intellectual property, as parents often ‘license’ the use of assets to subsidiaries. • Fronting loan: a loan between the parent and its subsidiary, channeled through a bank. The parent deposits a sum in a foreign bank, which then transfers the funds to the subsidiary as a loan. • Transfer pricing: the prices that subsidiaries and affiliates charge one another for transferred goods and services within the same MNE. International Business: Strategy, Management, and the New Realities

  13. Multilateral Netting • Strategic reduction of cash transfers within the MNE family via elimination of offsetting cash flows. • Involves three or more subsidiaries that hold accounts payable or accounts receivable with each other. MNEs with many subsidiaries may establish a netting center. • The center advises each subsidiary of the amounts to pay and receive from other subsidiaries on a specified date. • Firms like Philips saves millions each year in transaction costs due to multilateral netting. International Business: Strategy, Management, and the New Realities

  14. Task Four: Capital Budgeting • Helps managers decide which international expansion projects are economically desirable. • The decision to accept or reject an investment project depends on the project’s initial investment requirement, its cost of capital, and the benefits the project is expected to provide. • Involves net present value analysis. • Can be very complex, because there are many variables to consider. • Facilitated by spreadsheet analysis International Business: Strategy, Management, and the New Realities

  15. Task Five: Currency Risk Management • Currency risk: the peril resulting from adverse unexpected fluctuations in exchange rates. • Exporters and licensors face currency risk because foreign buyers pay in their own currencies. • Foreign direct investors face currency risk because they receive both payments and incur obligations in foreign currencies. • Managers of foreign investment portfolios face currency risk as the value of stocks fluctuate. International Business: Strategy, Management, and the New Realities

  16. Three Types of Currency Risk • Transaction exposure. Arises when outstanding accounts receivable or payable are denominated in foreign currencies. • Translation exposure. Results financial statements denominated in a foreign currency are translated into the functional currency of the parent, as part of consolidating international financial results. • Economic exposure. Results from exchange rate fluctuations affecting the pricing of products, the cost of inputs, and the value of foreign investments. International Business: Strategy, Management, and the New Realities

  17. Foreign Exchange Trading • A small number of currencies facilitate international trade and investment. Some 2/3 of foreign reserves are in U.S. dollars, 25% in euros, 7% in yen and British pounds, and only 2% in the world’s 150 other currencies. • Volume of currencies exchanged is huge. As of 2007, some $3 trillion worth of currency was traded everyday, 10 times the value of daily stock and bond turnover, and 100 times the value of daily merchandise trade. One-third of all currency trading, about $1 trillion per day, takes place in London. International Business: Strategy, Management, and the New Realities

  18. Specialized Terminology for Currency Trading • Spot rate: the exchange rate applicable to the trading of foreign currencies in which the current rate of exchange is used and delivery is considered ‘immediate.’ • Forward rate: theexchange rate applicable to the collection or delivery of foreign currencies at some future date, but a rate specified at the time of the transaction. International Business: Strategy, Management, and the New Realities

  19. Exchange Rate Forecasting and Hedging • Firms attempt to forecast exchange rate fluctuations. • Firms attempt to proactively manage exchange rate exposure via hedging. • Forecasts are available from banks and business news sources. • Online sources include the Bank for International Settlements (www.bis.org), the World Bank (www.worldbank.org), and the European Central Bank (www.ecb.int). International Business: Strategy, Management, and the New Realities

  20. Task Six: Manage the Diversity of International Accounting and Tax Practices • The firm’s accounting systems must identify, measure, and communicate financial information, often in complex multi-country operations, with much variation in national accounting systems. • For example, there are dozens of approaches for determining R&D expenditures, cost of goods sold, asset valuation, net profits, etc. • Financial statements prepared according to the rules of one country may be difficult to compare with those prepared in another country. International Business: Strategy, Management, and the New Realities

  21. Transparency in Financial Reporting • Transparency is the degree to which firms regularly and comprehensively reveal substantial information about their financial condition and accounting practices. • In order to increase transparency in the United States, the federal government passed the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in 2002, making CEOs and CFOs personally responsible for the accuracy of annual reports and other financial data. • In general, accounting standards are becoming more standardized worldwide. International Business: Strategy, Management, and the New Realities

  22. Consolidating Financial Statements of Subsidiaries • Involves “translating” data denominated in foreign currencies into the firm’s functional currency on headquarters financial statements. • Current rate method -- all foreign currency balance-sheet and income statement items are translated at the current exchange rate -- the spot exchange rate in effect on the day the statements are prepared. • Temporal method -- the choice of exchange rate depends on the underlying method of valuation. If assets and liabilities are normally valued at historical cost, then they are translated at the historical rates. If assets and liabilities are normally valued at market cost, they are translated at the current rate of exchange. International Business: Strategy, Management, and the New Realities

  23. International Taxation • A direct tax is imposed on income derived from the firm’s business activities. • An indirect tax applies to firms that license or franchise products and services, or who charge interest. In effect, the local government withholds some percentage of payments as tax. • A sales tax is a flat percentage tax on the value of goods or services sold, and paid by the ultimate user. • A value-added tax(VAT) is payable at each stage of processing in the value chain of a product or service. It is common in Canada, Europe, and Latin America. International Business: Strategy, Management, and the New Realities

  24. Tax Havens • A country hospitable to business and inward investment because of its low corporate income tax. • Examples: Bahamas, Luxembourg, Monaco, Singapore, Switzerland • They exist partly because MNEs want to structure their global activities in ways that minimize taxes. • MNEs take advantage of tax havens either by establishing operations in them or by funneling business transactions through them. International Business: Strategy, Management, and the New Realities