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  2. What is a Cosmetologist? In your group, list all of the qualities and skills that you believe are required of a cosmetologist.

  3. DID YOUR GROUP GUESS… Advise giver Professional expert in practical skills areas Artistic Designer Creator Trustworthy

  4. Businessperson Self-promoter Poised and well groomed Effective communicator Being current with trends and technologies Good listener

  5. In your group, list on flip chart paper all of the occupations you believe are included in the Cosmetology profession. For some, you will need to think “outside of the box”

  6. Add: I am responsible for my own education

  7. Cosmetology includes: * hairstyling * nail technology * esthetics

  8. Cosmetology: Greek word: kosmetikos Means: skilled in the use of cosmetics Barber: Latin word: barba Means: the beard or the hair of the beard.

  9. Review 1. What services can a cosmetologist perform? 2. List four qualities a cosmetologist should have. 3. Explain the origin of the word cosmetology . (Include detail)

  10. Archeological studies: Reveal that haircutting and hairstyling were practiced as early as the glacial age • Implements Used: • Sharpened flints • Oyster shells • Bone • Animal sinew • Strips of hide

  11. Color matter made from: Berries Bark of trees Minerals Insects Nuts Herbs Leaves And other materials

  12. Ancient Egyptians: • The first to cultivate beauty in an extravagant fashion • ***Barbers serviced the nobility and the priesthood over 6,000 years ago


  14. first to use: • * cosmetics as part of their personal beautification habits • * in religious ceremonies • * preparing the deceased for burial

  15. 3000 B.C. * minerals, insects, and berries to create makeup for their eyes, lips, and skin * henna to stain the hair and nails a rich, warm red * first civilization to use essential oils for perfume/purification purposes hair history

  16. created kohl makeup • *mixture of ground galena (a black mineral) • * sulfur • * animal fat

  17. * used to heavily line the eyes • * alleviate eye inflammations • * protect the eyes from the glare of the sun • In ancient Egypt and Rome, military commanders stained their nails and lips in matching colors before important battles

  18. Chinese • 1600 B.C. aristocrats • * rubbed tinted mixtures onto their nails • * turned crimson or ebony • 1100 B.C. • * gold and silver were royal colors • * commoners caught wearing a royal nail color faced a punishment of death

  19. ***Egyptian and Roman women temporarily waved their hair by applying a mixture of soil and water (mud) to the hair and wrapping it around crudely made wooden rollers to bake in the sun ***In Africa, hair was groomed with intricately carved combs and adorned with beads, clay and colored bands

  20. FYI: **Prior to 3000 B.C. nail care is recorded in Egypt and China • color of a persons nails was a sign of rank: • high social rank: red-orange henna • kings and queens: deep red • people of lower rank: pale colors • in China, nails were painted red or black

  21. GOLDEN AGE OF GREECE (500 B.C.) • hairstyling became a highly developed art • used perfumes and cosmetics in religious rites, in grooming, and for medicinal purposes • developed excellent method • of dressing the hair and • caring for the skin and nails


  23. used white lead on faces, kohl on eyes and vermillion on cheeks and lips • vermillion • bright red pigment by grinding • cinnabar • ~ a mineral that is the chief source of mercury • The fine powder was mixed with ointment or dusted on the skin in the same way as cosmetics are applied today

  24. ROME (296 B.C.) • facials of milk, bread and fine wine were popular • mixture of chalk and lead used for facial cosmetic • hairstyling services introduced; women used hair color to indicate class in society as follows: • - noblewomen: red hair • - middle-class women: blonde • - poor women: black

  25. Julius Caesar 101-44 BC • had his face tweezed everyday • this started a trend among the men of that time

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  27. Middle ages • included towering headdresses, intricate hairstyles, and cosmetics • around 1000 A.D. an alchemist refined the process of steam distillation which is still used to create essentials oils today • ***Vocabulary word: • Alchemy-pre-scientific chemistry, usually with fluids, juices and the elixir of longevity.


  29. Renaissance • transition from medieval to modern history • shaved eyebrows and hairline-thought to give the women a look of greater intelligence • highly colored cosmetics were • discouraged.

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  31. Barbering and Medicine The Barber Pole-symbol of the barber-surgeon, has its roots from the bloodletting procedure that was once thought to strengthen the immune system • Pole = the staff; patients held a staff tightly in order for the veins in the arm to stand out. • Bottom = basin; basin was the vessel that caught the blood.


  33. 3.White bandages stop blood; the bandages used to stop the bleeding were hung on the staff to dry. The stained bandages would twist around the pole forming the red/white candy-cane pattern. Another interpretation is that the red represented the blood, blue the veins, and white the bandages. Barbers still use the symbol today.

  34. Victorian Age • FYI: many changes in hair care • Add: • 1875; Frenchman, Marcel Grateau, developed hot irons for waving and curling the hair. Known today as marcel waving

  35. 1892; Frenchman, Alexander F. Godefroy, invented a • hot-blast hair dryer • 1890; First hairdressing academy opening in Chicago by Frenchman, Bribois and Federmeyer.

  36. to preserve the health and beauty of the skin, women used beauty masks made from natural ingredients • pinched their cheeks and bit their lips to colorize rather than use cosmetics

  37. The Twentieth Century • shift in American attitudes caused by the movie industry • viewers wanted the flawless complexions, beautiful hairstyles, manicured nails, changing the standards of feminine beauty • beauty began to follow trends

  38. Vivien Leigh 1940’s Jean Harlow 1930’s Elizabeth Taylor 1950’s

  39. 1901-1910 • Max Factor began making and selling makeup to movie stars that would not cake or crack, even under the hot studio lights

  40. History of Permanent Waving • 1905, Charles Nessler invented heavily wired machine that supplied electrical current to metal rods around which hair strands were wrapped • units were heated • kept away from the scalp by counterbalancing weights suspended from an overhead chandelier mounted to a stand

  41. Internet source:

  42. Two methods were used to wind hair strands around the metal units: • Spiral wrap: long hair was wound from scalp to ends • Croquignole wrap: for short hair, wound from ends to scalp.

  43. Success story of the cosmetology industry Madam C.J. Walker • daughter of a former slave • born Sarah Breedlove in 1867 • during the 1890’s she suffered from a scalp condition and began to lose her hair. • she experimented with store-bought products and home-made remedies

  44. invented hair grower scalp conditioner • devised sophisticated sales and marketing strategies and traveled extensively giving product demonstrations • built a factory, hair salon and training school • by developing more products her empire grew 1929

  45. gave time and money to organizations like NAACP and the YMCA • organized the first national meetings for businesswomen • pioneer of the modern black hair care and cosmetic industry

  46. 1920’s • cosmetic industry grew rapidly • ad’s expenditures in radio alone went from $390,000.00 to $3.2 million by the end of the decade

  47. 1931, preheat method was introduced-hair was wrapped in the croquinole method • clamps heated by a separate electrical machine were place over the wound curls

  48. 1932, a method that used external heat generated by chemical reaction was introduced • small flexible pads containing a chemical mixture were wound around hair strands • pads moistened with water released a chemical heat creating long-lasting curls • machineless permanent wave was born

  49. 1932 • Revlon marketed the first nail polish (not stain) using formulas borrowed from the car paint industry • dramatic shift in nail cosmetics • array of nail lacquer colors available • early screen stars started the trend of wearing these colors on their fingers and toes

  50. 1932-Clairol created permanent haircolor • 1938 the cold wave was invented that used no machine or heat • considered to be the precursor to the modern perm