COSMETOLOGY: THE HISTORY AND OPPORTUNITIES
What is a Cosmetologist? In your group, list all of the qualities and skills that you believe are required of a cosmetologist.
DID YOUR GROUP GUESS… Advise giver Professional expert in practical skills areas Artistic Designer Creator Trustworthy
Businessperson Self-promoter Poised and well groomed Effective communicator Being current with trends and technologies Good listener
In your group, list on flip chart paper all of the occupations you believe are included in the Cosmetology profession. For some, you will need to think “outside of the box”
Add: I am responsible for my own education
Cosmetology includes: * hairstyling * nail technology * esthetics Curly-hairstyles.blogspot.com Caofb.com/esthetics Coolnaolsart.com/bubbles
Cosmetology: Greek word: kosmetikos Means: skilled in the use of cosmetics Barber: Latin word: barba Means: the beard or the hair of the beard.
Review 1. What services can a cosmetologist perform? 2. List four qualities a cosmetologist should have. 3. Explain the origin of the word cosmetology . (Include detail)
Archeological studies: Reveal that haircutting and hairstyling were practiced as early as the glacial age • Implements Used: • Sharpened flints • Oyster shells • Bone • Animal sinew • Strips of hide
Color matter made from: Berries Bark of trees Minerals Insects Nuts Herbs Leaves And other materials Danielmeissler.com Takegreatpictures.com
Ancient Egyptians: • The first to cultivate beauty in an extravagant fashion • ***Barbers serviced the nobility and the priesthood over 6,000 years ago
first to use: • * cosmetics as part of their personal beautification habits • * in religious ceremonies • * preparing the deceased for burial
3000 B.C. * minerals, insects, and berries to create makeup for their eyes, lips, and skin * henna to stain the hair and nails a rich, warm red * first civilization to use essential oils for perfume/purification purposes Mnsu.edu Womensnet.com/about hair history Americanaromatherapy.com
created kohl makeup • *mixture of ground galena (a black mineral) • * sulfur • * animal fat Makeupweb.guide.com
* used to heavily line the eyes • * alleviate eye inflammations • * protect the eyes from the glare of the sun • In ancient Egypt and Rome, military commanders stained their nails and lips in matching colors before important battles
Chinese • 1600 B.C. aristocrats • * rubbed tinted mixtures onto their nails • * turned crimson or ebony • 1100 B.C. • * gold and silver were royal colors • * commoners caught wearing a royal nail color faced a punishment of death
***Egyptian and Roman women temporarily waved their hair by applying a mixture of soil and water (mud) to the hair and wrapping it around crudely made wooden rollers to bake in the sun ***In Africa, hair was groomed with intricately carved combs and adorned with beads, clay and colored bands
FYI: **Prior to 3000 B.C. nail care is recorded in Egypt and China • color of a persons nails was a sign of rank: • high social rank: red-orange henna • kings and queens: deep red • people of lower rank: pale colors • in China, nails were painted red or black
GOLDEN AGE OF GREECE (500 B.C.) • hairstyling became a highly developed art • used perfumes and cosmetics in religious rites, in grooming, and for medicinal purposes • developed excellent method • of dressing the hair and • caring for the skin and nails Karenswhimsy.com
mangatutorials.com Stcatherinesprimary.co.uk Karenswhimsy.com
used white lead on faces, kohl on eyes and vermillion on cheeks and lips • vermillion • bright red pigment by grinding • cinnabar • ~ a mineral that is the chief source of mercury • The fine powder was mixed with ointment or dusted on the skin in the same way as cosmetics are applied today Margretshort.typepad.com
ROME (296 B.C.) • facials of milk, bread and fine wine were popular • mixture of chalk and lead used for facial cosmetic • hairstyling services introduced; women used hair color to indicate class in society as follows: • - noblewomen: red hair • - middle-class women: blonde • - poor women: black
Julius Caesar 101-44 BC • had his face tweezed everyday • this started a trend among the men of that time www.american-pictures.com/genealogy/descent/p...
Explore-italian-culture.com Roman-colosseum.info Crystallyn.vox.vom Digonsite.com Eternallycool.net
Middle ages • included towering headdresses, intricate hairstyles, and cosmetics • around 1000 A.D. an alchemist refined the process of steam distillation which is still used to create essentials oils today • ***Vocabulary word: • Alchemy-pre-scientific chemistry, usually with fluids, juices and the elixir of longevity.
Usiweb.usi.edu Edarlein.deviantart.com Herstoria.com
Renaissance • transition from medieval to modern history • shaved eyebrows and hairline-thought to give the women a look of greater intelligence • highly colored cosmetics were • discouraged. Wholesale.garison.com
Press.princeton.edu Abeautyglorious.blogspot.com 2.ivcc.rdu
Barbering and Medicine The Barber Pole-symbol of the barber-surgeon, has its roots from the bloodletting procedure that was once thought to strengthen the immune system • Pole = the staff; patients held a staff tightly in order for the veins in the arm to stand out. • Bottom = basin; basin was the vessel that caught the blood.
3.White bandages stop blood; the bandages used to stop the bleeding were hung on the staff to dry. The stained bandages would twist around the pole forming the red/white candy-cane pattern. Another interpretation is that the red represented the blood, blue the veins, and white the bandages. Barbers still use the symbol today.
Victorian Age • FYI: many changes in hair care • Add: • 1875; Frenchman, Marcel Grateau, developed hot irons for waving and curling the hair. Known today as marcel waving Purespadirect.com Jiunlimites.com
1892; Frenchman, Alexander F. Godefroy, invented a • hot-blast hair dryer • 1890; First hairdressing academy opening in Chicago by Frenchman, Bribois and Federmeyer. Probeautykit.com
to preserve the health and beauty of the skin, women used beauty masks made from natural ingredients • pinched their cheeks and bit their lips to colorize rather than use cosmetics
The Twentieth Century • shift in American attitudes caused by the movie industry • viewers wanted the flawless complexions, beautiful hairstyles, manicured nails, changing the standards of feminine beauty • beauty began to follow trends
Vivien Leigh 1940’s Jean Harlow 1930’s Elizabeth Taylor 1950’s Newhotstuff.net
1901-1910 • Max Factor began making and selling makeup to movie stars that would not cake or crack, even under the hot studio lights Rubylane.com Onlineauction.com
History of Permanent Waving • 1905, Charles Nessler invented heavily wired machine that supplied electrical current to metal rods around which hair strands were wrapped • units were heated • kept away from the scalp by counterbalancing weights suspended from an overhead chandelier mounted to a stand
Two methods were used to wind hair strands around the metal units: • Spiral wrap: long hair was wound from scalp to ends • Croquignole wrap: for short hair, wound from ends to scalp.
Success story of the cosmetology industry Madam C.J. Walker • daughter of a former slave • born Sarah Breedlove in 1867 • during the 1890’s she suffered from a scalp condition and began to lose her hair. • she experimented with store-bought products and home-made remedies Inventors.about.com
invented hair grower scalp conditioner • devised sophisticated sales and marketing strategies and traveled extensively giving product demonstrations • built a factory, hair salon and training school • by developing more products her empire grew 1929 www.scott.k12.va.us/rita/51757_2.JPG
gave time and money to organizations like NAACP and the YMCA • organized the first national meetings for businesswomen • pioneer of the modern black hair care and cosmetic industry Scribalterror.blogs.com Urbanstages.org
1920’s • cosmetic industry grew rapidly • ad’s expenditures in radio alone went from $390,000.00 to $3.2 million by the end of the decade Digitalhistory.uh.edu Vintagepowderroom.com
1931, preheat method was introduced-hair was wrapped in the croquinole method • clamps heated by a separate electrical machine were place over the wound curls Dehaarsite.nl
1932, a method that used external heat generated by chemical reaction was introduced • small flexible pads containing a chemical mixture were wound around hair strands • pads moistened with water released a chemical heat creating long-lasting curls • machineless permanent wave was born
1932 • Revlon marketed the first nail polish (not stain) using formulas borrowed from the car paint industry • dramatic shift in nail cosmetics • array of nail lacquer colors available • early screen stars started the trend of wearing these colors on their fingers and toes Quirkyfinds.com
1932-Clairol created permanent haircolor • 1938 the cold wave was invented that used no machine or heat • considered to be the precursor to the modern perm Library.duke.edu Ebay.com