Teenage Driver Safety: The Australian Perspective Communicating with Teens 2009 International Symposium Sponsored by the University of Michigan’s M-CASTL August 20th 2009 Michigan Center for Advancing Safe Transportation throughout the Lifespan Keynote address: Professor Mary Sheehan, CARRS-Q
Overview • The core issue : Young driver fatalities • Licensing policies (GLS) • Sources of information 2004 – 2008 • Licensing linked programs and interventions • Road safety / awareness programs: • School based • Community based • Driver education for senior students: • Best practice • Counterproductive issues and Challenges • Conclusion
The core issue: Young driver fatalities Learner, Provisional and Open licence crash rates –extracted from Queensland Transport 2005
The core issue: Young driver fatalities Proportion of male fatalities (17-25yr) by road user group, Australia 2008 Drivers - 80% Passengers - 67% Pedestrians - 85% Motorcyclists - 90% Cyclists - 100% All road users - 79% Road Deaths Australia Statistical Summary
Licensing Policies • Australian states graduated licensing • Michigan licensing
Sources of information 2004 – 2008 • Road Safety Research, Policing and Education conferences • Australian College of Road Safety conferences • CARRS-Q Queensland Road Safety Awards • Australian Transport Safety Bureau publications • CARRS-Q research and associated publications
Licensing linked programs and interventions • Australian Transport Safety Bureau – Keys2Drive • Australian Capital Territory – Ready to Drive program (school based) • Queensland – Youth Drive Safe • Royal Automobile Club Queensland program – free2go • ATSB / New South Wales / Victoria intervention – Novice Driver Coaching Program
Licensing linked programs and interventions Keys2Drive: Keys to a safer future A national driver/trainer initiative by the Federal Government Transport Department. Program for learner drivers that provides a free lesson from a specially trained driving instructor for the learner driver and their supervisor. Instructors have special training and are registered as accredited trainers. Sponsored in each state and territory by the major insurance company. Evaluation: Tasmania trial currently underway. Very difficult to evaluate. Is this program directed to the raising of standards of driver trainers?
National driver trainer intervention • First time here guide • Free driving lesson for new drivers • Training and accreditation for driving instructors • Education for a new generation of safer drivers • Car advice and licensing information
Licensing linked programs and interventions Youth Drive Safe Sponsored by a large construction company. 500 students in each high school get 5 hours of dedicated training and a dedicated car for the school. No evaluation – exposure and encouragement to early driving may be a problem.
Licensing linked programs and interventions RACQ free2go(not NRMA Free2Go) • Free and discounted membership for 16 & 17 yrs, half price for 18 & 19 yrs • Online trial learner tests • Free L and P plates • On line log books to record driving experience • Practical skills training video • Over 200 suggested driving routes to give experience of different tasks with associated maps • Access to Driver trainers (RACQ) No evaluation
Licensing linked programs and interventions Novice Driver Coaching Program • An important and innovative programme developed by leading researchers and funded and supported to be conducted as a major research trial in Victoria and NSW. • It builds on the EU Project “Gadget Matrix” (Driver Behaviour Model) and is designed as a driver /education development programme for Australian Novice Drivers with 6 months solo driving experience. • Young drivers are recruited into a small [6-10] coaching group with a trained mentor and learning, reflection and follow –up are spread over a period of several months (8 sessions). • The approach is based on adult learning principles and participatory learning • It involves identification of hazards and coaching in effective driving for the situation with novice’s vehicle and associated small group peer discussion Evaluation – the comprehensive experimental trial is due to commence. ATSB, CR 222
Road safety/awareness programs – school based • ACT “Ready to Drive” program • “RRISK: Reduce Risk Increase Student Knowledge” • “Youth and Road Trauma Forum” • SPIY: Skills for Preventing Injury in Youth
Road safety/awareness programs – school based ACT “Road Ready” program Innovative and unique program in Australia since 2000 • School based theory lessons about road safety ( 22 lessons by trained teachers) • Begins in Grade 10 –at least two years before licensing • Parents/ supervisors trained and recruited for “commentary driving” • Licence test can be competency test by accredited driver trainer (selected by about 70%) Evaluation mixed but marginally positive at 3+ years. ACT Department of Urban Services (2004)
Road safety/awareness programs – school based “RRISK: Reduce Risk Increase Student Knowledge” A program with significant community involvement. The main intervention is a one day seminar for senior school students. Does have associated in-school activities. Primarily focused on alcohol and drug use protection safety. • Risks associated with drug and alcohol use • Safe driving strategies • How to buy and maintain a safe car • Crash scenarios • Personal accounts by a disabled person • Opportunity for school to win a car for use in driving lessons Evaluated at three months and showed significant knowledge, attitude and self-reported behaviour change in protective driving and drinking.
Road safety/awareness programs – school based . “Youth and Road Trauma Forum” Similar to RRISK but aims to reduce road fatality and injury rates. The programme includes many components that are also used in stand alone interventions. It is typical of this sort of programme though this particular programme is remarkable in that it “is the only formal road safety programme that incorporates all emergency services as well as numerous health care providers and non-government organisations” A typical programme* A one-day programme held at an external venue and available to students from local/regional schools in grades 10,11 &12. Wilson, Seggie & Morphett (2008) No evaluation reported.
A typical one-day symposium program includes: • Interactive emergency services displays, e.g. police, fire, ambulance, hospital • Spinal injury speakers • Brain injury unit speakers • Organ donation speakers • Pseudo-crash participation • Wheelchair basketball game
Road safety/awareness programs – school based “Skills for Preventing Injury in Youth – SPIY” • Established curriculum integrated programme for young adolescents (14.5yrs) targeting relevant injury situations • Involves 8 lessons in Health and Physical Education that are designed to train students in First Aid skills in a context of peer protection and support to avoid high risk situations. • Teachers are trained to deliver the active and interactive classes and students are formally tested as part of class assessment. Evaluates well at six month follow up with reduced self reported injuries and involvement in high risk situations. In particular significant and meaningful increase in bicycle helmet wearing and reduced cycling injuries. Buckley, Sheehan & Chapman (2008)
Road safety awareness programs: community based Safe communities WHO initiatives There has been a marked increase in large coordinated community and regional health promotion programmes aiming for accreditation as WHO Safe Communities Many include a road safety component of the type noted in the discussion of the Youth and Road Trauma Forum. No evaluation reported Lennon et al. 2008
Driver education for senior students:Best practice Content • Material and knowledge that is consistent with the GLS (Graduated Licensing System) • Attitudes that are known to affect risky behaviours (e.g. attitudes to speeding) • Hazard perception and higher order skill development • Road safety targets that are appropriate for the developmental period e.g. the role of a supportive/protective peer passenger or ‘good mate’, as well as driving behaviour • Emotional messages should not focus on evoking fear, and should be accompanied by specific risk management strategies.
Driver education for senior students:Best practice Process • Multiple sessions covering a range of issues • Use continuity of road safety messages from primary school road safety programs through high school to licensing stage (include passenger behaviour) • Effective messages need to be delivered through interactive processes and small group discussions • Programs should be delivered by skilled individuals who can manage the above (e.g. teacher with relevant training) • Ideally, include parental involvement
Driver education for senior students:Counterproductive issues • Programs which encourage early licensing - exposure • Programs which result in over-confidence about driving abilities in participants Buckley and Haworth (2008)
Driver education for senior students: Challenges Reaching young males • Negative or positive messages • High risk students Passenger safety messages School program constraints • School curriculum overload • Emerging use of web based programs • Evaluation/Ethics limitations
Challenges: Reaching young males Negative and positive messages Australia’s road safety media messages to young people have been based almost exclusively on fear and shock images. This approach is also being used extensively in education programmes that fall outside the best practice models. Growing research base critical of such messages on the grounds of ineffectiveness. A major program of research into effects of advertising has made three important contributions to this debate : • The short term effect of negative images is equally as effective for males and females • The longer term effect in terms of reported behaviour changes is significantly improved for males by more positive [humorous] messages • Reported effectiveness may be moderated by the consensus belief that road safety advertising should be catastrophic and negative Lewis, Watson and White 2008
Challenges: Reaching young males Negative and positive messages: Effective messages • First time convicted offenders’ perceptions of effective messages “Graphic photos I guess, like this can happen if you go drink driving, like crashing, you can actually kill someone, cause damage to yourself, financial losses.” Male, aged 19 “Some of those road safety ads on TV are quite graphic, they are very good.” Male, aged 30 Brisbane Magistrates’ Court, Brisbane 2009
Most road safety ads focus on fear of... Hurting self or others Social rejection
Challenges: Reaching young males 2. High risk students Those reporting the highest number of risk taking activities have double the number of hospitalised injuries. Pickett, Schmidt and Boyce (2002) Around 25% of young adolescents in a school population engage in behaviours that can lead to trauma and injury and can be considered to be of high risk. Soole, Chapman, Sheehan, Siskind and Buckley (2007)
Challenges: Reaching young males • Reaching young males Established findings on “sensation seeking” and “optimism bias” More recent exploration by educators and sociologists coming from outside the road safety profession: • Masculine identity • Meaning of cars • Meaning of driving
Challenges: Reaching young males Defining masculinity Hydraulic masculinity: “Young males have a high level investment in cars as a medium for male admiration and the expression of competitiveness, power, control, technique, skill and aggression” Walker, Butland & Connell (2000) Combustion masculinity: “Young males identify driving skill with masculinity. Speeding and risk are part of the socially defined masculinity.” Redshaw (2008)
Challenges: Reaching young males Defining masculinity “Road safety appeals to the rational driver whilst advertisers tempt the desiring driver.” “The car culture offers young, working class men the building of masculine identity and thus a sense of dignity and self worth.” “Cars act as symbols of masculinity that are instrumental in asserting personal status and power.” Morphett & Safoulis (2005)
Comparison of school based and juvenile delinquent boys on characteristics of “being a man” Williams (2005)
Challenges: Reaching young males • Continued and pervasive focus on young male risk taking may be counter productive and create normalisation of such behaviours • Little or no attention is given to alternate images of patience, high skill and concentration shown by male vehicle operators, e.g. crane and lift operators, drivers of long-haulage vehicles and mining site drivers
This public health advertisement took a different approach… Cervical cancer vaccine ad It aimed to make young women feel positive and empowered about protecting their health. But would the same approach work for young males when it comes to driving?
Challenges: Passenger safety messages • The potential for passengers to play a role in young drivers safety needs to be explored. • The role of passengers as potential for distraction and unsafe driving has been highlighted by the GLS restrictions on having more than one passenger during night time driving. • On the other hand it has been demonstrated that passengers also carry a safety potential. • Finally, whilst still a minority it is in the passenger role that young women are most vulnerable to fatalities due to road crashes.
Challenges: School program constraints School curricula are densely filled and with an exploding range of health and safety measures seeking coverage. It is increasingly difficult to add any type of extended program even though they are known to be needed in terms of best practice. The exploration of web sites as a possible way to attract and involve young people in road safety needs further exploration. • They seem to be effective in some alcohol reduction interventions. • The possible advantage of being a long term intervention and able to include a comprehensive range of strategies • Sophisticated design has potential to be interactive and individually tailored to the interest and relevance of the learner
Challenges: Emerging use of web-based programs *Learners and Provisional Chapman, Buckley & Sheehan (2009)
Challenges: School program constraints • Ethics requirements for research in schools now needs active Education department, school, parental and student consent. This poses particular difficulties for studies trying to follow up with high risk students who are among those least likely to obtain consent. • A number of the programs discussed in this presentation have experienced great difficulty evaluating outcomes due to very low response rates.
Teenage Driver Safety: The Australian Perspective In conclusion: Lack of safety is a continuing serious problem but GLS has been a major national innovation. The very high level of community attention and focus that implementing GLS has brought with it has lead to what seems to be some remarkable and much overdue changes in Australia’s road safety environment. All major insurance companies now have commitment and investment in large outreach interventions to improve young driver safety. Young driver safety is being increasingly picked up by Health affiliated groups in addition to the traditionally responsible Transport and Police Departments. However: The extreme over representation of young males in road user fatalities is a persistent reality and receives only limited attention in interventions.
Major international contributors to Australia’s approach to teenage driver safety Ray Bingham Nils Gregersen Dan Mayhew Jean Shope Allan Williams
References Chapman, R., Buckley, L. & Sheehan, M. (2009). The potential for a web-based intervention to improve young adult passenger safety. In Proceedings of 2009 Australasian Road Safety Research, Policing and Education Conference. Sydney, Australia: November 2009. Lennon, A.J., Haworth. N.L., Tichener, K., Siskind, V., McKenzie, K., FitzGerald, G., Clark, M.J., Sheehan, M.C., Edmnston, C.J. (2009) Injury prevention in Queensland: report to Queensland Injury Prevention Council. Lewis, I., Watson, B., White, K.M. (2008) An examination of message-relevant affect in road safety messages: Should road safety advertisements aim to make us feel good or bad? Transportation Research Part F 11 (2008) 403-417. Morphett, A. & Sofoulis, Z .(2005) Cars, Sex, Drugs and media: comparing modalities of road safety and public health messages, In Lisa Dorn, (ed.), Driving Behaviour and Training Vol 2: Human Factors in Road and Rail Transport, Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 61-78. Pickett, W., Schmidt, H., Boyce, W.F. et al. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 156:2002: 786-93. Redshaw S.(2008) In the company of cars, England: Ashgate Publishing. RRISK Evaluation Report 2002-2005 Summary (2008) North Coast Area Health Service. Soole, D.W., Chapman, R., Sheehan, M., Siskind, V. & Buckley, L.(2007) Australasian College of Road Safety Conference on Infants, Children and Young People and Road Safety. Sydney. Walker, Linley, Butland, D. & Connell, R.W (2000) Boys on the road: masculinities, car culture, and road safety education, Journal of Men’s Studies, 8(2),153-169.
Referencescont. Williams, C. (2005) Stealing a car to be a man: the importance of cars and driving in the gender identity of adolescent males. PhD Thesis (unpublished) QUT: Australia. Wilson, S., Seggie, J. & Morphett, A. (2008) Youth and Road Trauma Forum, paper presented to Road Safety Research In Proceedings of 2008 Australasian Road Safety Research, Policing and Education Conference. Perth, Australia: November 2008.
Referencescont. Websites Accessed Cervical cancer vaccine ad image from CSL Limited Annual Report 2006-2007. Retrieved 7 August 2009 from http://annualreport.csl.com.au/AR07/AR07_BF_CSL_Biotherapies_Feature.asp Corinaldi, S. & Leong, J. (2008). Motivating Gen Y when it’s not about fun. In Proceedings of Adolescent Health 2008. Melbourne, Australia: 5-7 November 2008. http://www.adolescenthealth08.com/presentations/Corinaldi_Sally.pdf Figure 1 from Queensland Transport Discussion Paper Queensland youth: on the road and in control. Queensland Government, October 2005. http://www.transport.qld.gov.au/resources/file/eb9c8b4d6a194f6/Pdf_young_drivers_discussion_paper v2.pdf keys2drive. (2009). Retrieved 7 August 2009 from http://www.keys2drive.com.au pjh8888. (2007). Speeding. No one thinks big of you. Retrieved 7 August 2009 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SgV9Oa6z5wY RaptorFag. (2006). Australian Speeding Advert. Retrieved 7 August 2009 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=75GuzsGzoP0&NR=1 rdelacruise. (2006). Mitsubishi I like the way you move. Retrieved 7 August 2009 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AbfMSh6QYjM
References cont. TopGearOz. (2009). NEW Top Gear Aus: Ep4 - Audi V10 vs HSV. Retrieved 7 August 2009 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rdBKx96IEP4 wuzzlevideos. (2008). Queensland Transport – Nightmare (Australia). Retrieved 7 August 2009 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qFH24xX1Em8