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OVERVIEW OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

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OVERVIEW OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

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  1. OVERVIEW OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P

  2. Overview of A&PObjectives Upon completion the student will be able to: • Define the terms anatomy and physiology • Identify the major levels of organization in humans and other living organisms • Explain the importance of homeostasis • Describe how positive and negative feedback are involved in homeostatic regulation. • Use anatomical terms to describe body regions, body sections, and relative positions. Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P

  3. Overview of A&PObjectives • Identify the major body cavities and their subdivisions. • Distinguish between visceral and parietal portions of serous membranes Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P

  4. Anatomy and Physiology All living organisms perform the same basic functions: • Responsiveness • Growth • Reproduction • Movement • Metabolism Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P

  5. ANATOMYDefined • Study of internal and external structure and the physical relationships between body parts. Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P

  6. PHYSIOLOGYDefined • Study of how living organisms perform their vital functions. Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P

  7. MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY • Two areas of microscopic anatomy: • Cytology (cells) • Histology (tissues) Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P

  8. MACROSCOPIC ANATOMY • Also known as gross anatomy. Three areas of macroscopic anatomy: • Surface Anatomy • Regional Anatomy • Systemic Anatomy Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P

  9. HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY • Cell Physiology • The study of the functions of living cells • Special Physiology • The study of specific organs • System Physiology • The study of specific organ systems • Pathology • The study of the effects of diseases on organ or system functions Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P

  10. LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION • Chemical • Cellular • Tissue • Organ • System • Organism Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P

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  15. HOMEOSTASIS • Refers to the existence of a stable internal environment. Also referred to as the tendency of internal balance of the organ systems. Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P

  16. HOMEOSTATIC REGULATION • Refers to the adjustments in physiological systems that preserve homeostasis. • Homeostatic regulation usually involves: • A receptor that is sensitive to a particular environmental change or stimulus • A control center, or integration center, which receives and processes information from the receptor. Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P

  17. HOMEOSTATIC REGULATION • An effector which responds to commands from the control center and whose activity opposes or reinforces the stimulus Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P

  18. HOMEOSTATIC REGULATIONNegative Feedback • The essential feature of negative feedback is this: • Regardless of whether the stimulus rises or falls at the receptor, a variation outside normal limits triggers an automatic response that corrects the situation. • Primary example is thermoregulation. • Too hot = peripheral vasodilation & sweating • Too cold = peripheral vasoconstriction & shivering. Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P

  19. HOMEOSTATIC REGULATIONPositive Feedback • In positive feedback, the initial stimulus produces a response that reinforces that stimulus. • Positive feedback is improtant in accelerating processes that must proceed to completion rapidly. • Example would be blood clotting. Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P

  20. Clotting Accelerates Positive Feedback Loop Break in blood vessel wall causes bleeding Damaged cells release chemicals Clotting Begins Additional Chemicals Released Blood clot plugs break in vessel wall; bleeding stops

  21. SURFACE ANATOMYAnatomical Landmarks • Anatomical Position • With the hands at the sides with the palms facing forward, and the feet together. • Supine • Lying face up • Prone • Lying face down Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P

  22. Directional Terms • Anterior • The front. • Example: The navel is on the anterior surface of the trunk. • Ventral • The belly side (equivalent to anterior when referring to the human body) Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P

  23. Directional Terms • Posterior • The back; behind • Example: The shoulder blade is located posterior to the rib cage • Dorsal • The back (equivalent to posterior when referring to the human body) Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P

  24. Directional Terms • Cranial or Cephalic • The head • Example: The cranial, or cephalic, border of the pelvis is superior to the thigh. • Superior • Above; at a higher level (in the human body, toward the head • Example: The nose is superior to the chin. Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P

  25. Directional Terms • Caudal • The tail (coccyx in humans) • Example: The hips are caudal to the waist. • Inferior • Below; at a lower level • Example: The knees are inferior to the hips. Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P

  26. Directional Terms • Medial • Toward the body’s longitudinal axis • Example: The medial surfaces of the thighs may be in contact. • Lateral • Away from the body’s longitudinal axis • Example: The thigh articulates with the lateral surface of the pelvis. Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P

  27. Directional Terms • Proximal • Toward an attached base, closer to the center of the body • Example: The thigh is proximal to the foot. • Distal • Away from an attached base, further from the center of the body • Example: The fingers are distal to the wrist Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P

  28. Directional Terms • Superficial • At, near, or relatively close to the body surface • Example: The scalp is superficial to the skull. • Deep • Farther from the body surface • Example: The bone of the thigh is deep to the surrounding skeletal muscles. Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P

  29. SECTIONAL ANATOMYPlanes and Sections • Transverse Plane • Frontal Plane • Sagittal Plane Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P

  30. BODY CAVITIESDorsal Cavities • Cranial Cavity • Spinal Cavity Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P

  31. BODY CAVITIESVentral Cavities • Thoracic Cavity • Abdominopelvic Cavity • Ventral cavities are divided by the diaphragm Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P

  32. BODY CAVITIESVentral Cavities • Abdominopelvic and thoracic cavities lined with serous membrane. The serous membranes have two divisions: • Visceral – covers surfaces of internal organs • Parietal – forms outer wall of body cavity Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P

  33. BODY CAVITIESVentral Cavities – Serous Membranes • Pericardial Cavity – consists of pericardium (visceral and parietal layers) • Pleural Cavities (2) – pleura surrounds lungs. Mediastinum divides the cavities • Peritoneal Cavity – peritoneum surround abdominal cavity. Mesenteries support organs Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P

  34. CELL STRUCTURE ANDFUNCTION Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P

  35. Cell StructureObjectives Upon completion the student will be able to: • List the functions of the cell membrane and the structures that perform those functions. • Describe the ways cells move materials across the cell membrane • Describe the organelles of a typical cell and indicate their specific functions • Explain the functions of the cell nucleus • Summarize the process of protein synthesis Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P

  36. Cell StructureObjectives • Describe the process of mitosis and explain its significance • Define differentiation and explain its importance Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P

  37. CELL THEORY • Cells are the basic structural units of all plants and animals. • Cells are the smallest functioning units of life. • Cells are produced only by the division of preexisting cells. • Each cell maintains homeostasis. Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P

  38. Cytology • Defined as the study of the structure and function of cells. Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P

  39. CELLULAR ANATOMY • Extracellular Fluid • Watery fluid around cells, also called interstitial fluid (something in between) • Cytoplasm • Cell contents • Cell Membrane • Also called the plasma membrane • Separates cytoplasm from extracellular fluid • Organelles • Intracellular structures Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P

  40. Intermediate Lecture - Overview of A & P