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Overview of Anatomy and Physiology

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  1. Overview of Anatomy and Physiology • Anatomy: The study of structure • Subdivisions: • Gross or macroscopic (e.g., regional, surface, and systemic anatomy) • Microscopic (e.g., cytology and histology) • Developmental (e.g., embryology)

  2. Overview of Anatomy and Physiology • Essential tools for the study of anatomy: • Mastery of anatomical terminology • Observation • Manipulation • Palpation • Auscultation

  3. Overview of Anatomy and Physiology • Physiology: The study of function at many levels • Subdivisions are based on organ systems (e.g., renal or cardiovascular physiology)

  4. Overview of Anatomy and Physiology • Essential tools for the study of physiology: • Ability to focus at many levels (from systemic to cellular and molecular) • Basic physical principles (e.g., electrical currents, pressure, and movement) • Basic chemical principles

  5. Principle of Complementarity • Anatomy and physiology are inseparable. • Function always reflects structure • What a structure can do depends on its specific form

  6. ___________ is the study of the body’s structure. • Histology • Anatomy • Embryology • Physiology

  7. __________ is the study of the body’s function. • Histology • Anatomy • Embryology • Physiology

  8. When the anatomy of a body part is intimately tied to its specific function, scientists call this the principle of ___________. • hierarchical organization • complementary nature of structure and function • homeostasis • negative feedback

  9. Levels of Structural Organization • Chemical: atoms and molecules • Cellular: cells and their organelles • Tissue: groups of similar cells • Organ: contains two or more types of tissues • Organ system: organs that work closely together • Organismal: all organ systems

  10. Organelle Atoms Molecule Smooth muscle cell Cellular levelCells are made up ofmolecules. 2 Chemical levelAtoms combine to form molecules. 1 Smooth muscle tissue Cardiovascularsystem Tissue levelTissues consist of similartypes of cells. 3 Heart Bloodvessels Blood vessel (organ) Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Epithelialtissue Organ levelOrgans are made up of different typesof tissues. 4 Organismal levelThe human organism is made upof many organ systems. Organ system levelOrgan systems consist of differentorgans that work together closely. 6 5 Figure 1.1

  11. Atoms Molecule Chemical levelAtoms combine to form molecules. 1 Figure 1.1, step 1

  12. Organelle Atoms Molecule Smooth muscle cell Cellular levelCells are made up ofmolecules. 2 Chemical levelAtoms combine to form molecules. 1 Figure 1.1, step 2

  13. Organelle Atoms Molecule Smooth muscle cell Cellular levelCells are made up ofmolecules. 2 Chemical levelAtoms combine to form molecules. 1 Smooth muscle tissue Tissue levelTissues consist of similartypes of cells. 3 Figure 1.1, step 3

  14. Organelle Atoms Molecule Smooth muscle cell Cellular levelCells are made up ofmolecules. 2 Chemical levelAtoms combine to form molecules. 1 Smooth muscle tissue Tissue levelTissues consist of similartypes of cells. 3 Blood vessel (organ) Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Epithelialtissue Organ levelOrgans are made up of different typesof tissues. 4 Figure 1.1, step 4

  15. Organelle Atoms Molecule Smooth muscle cell Cellular levelCells are made up ofmolecules. 2 Chemical levelAtoms combine to form molecules. 1 Smooth muscle tissue Cardiovascularsystem Tissue levelTissues consist of similartypes of cells. 3 Heart Bloodvessels Blood vessel (organ) Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Epithelialtissue Organ levelOrgans are made up of different typesof tissues. 4 Organ system levelOrgan systems consist of differentorgans that work together closely. 5 Figure 1.1, step 5

  16. Organelle Atoms Molecule Smooth muscle cell Cellular levelCells are made up ofmolecules. 2 Chemical levelAtoms combine to form molecules. 1 Smooth muscle tissue Cardiovascularsystem Tissue levelTissues consist of similartypes of cells. 3 Heart Bloodvessels Blood vessel (organ) Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Epithelialtissue Organ levelOrgans are made up of different typesof tissues. 4 Organismal levelThe human organism is made upof many organ systems. Organ system levelOrgan systems consist of differentorgans that work together closely. 6 5 Figure 1.1, step 6

  17. Which of the following is a logical organization? • Atoms, cells, molecules, tissues • Molecules, atoms, cells, tissues • Atoms, tissues, molecules, cells • Atoms, molecules, cells, tissues

  18. Overview of Organ Systems • Note major organs and functions of the 11 organ systems

  19. Hair Nails Skin (a) Integumentary System Forms the external body covering, and protects deeper tissues from injury. Synthesizes vitamin D, and houses cutaneous (pain, pressure, etc.) receptors and sweat and oil glands. Figure 1.3a

  20. Bones Joint (b) Skeletal System Protects and supports body organs, and provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement. Blood cells are formed within bones. Bones store minerals. Figure 1.3b

  21. Skeletal muscles (c)Muscular System Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression. Main- tains posture, and produces heat. Figure 1.3c

  22. Brain Nerves Spinal cord (d) Nervous System As the fast-acting control system of the body, it responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands. Figure 1.3d

  23. Pineal gland Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Thymus Adrenal gland Pancreas Testis Ovary (e) Endocrine System Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells. Figure 1.3e

  24. Heart Blood vessels (f) Cardiovascular System Blood vessels transport blood, whichcarries oxygen, carbon dioxide,nutrients, wastes, etc. The heart pumpsblood. Figure 1.3f

  25. Red bone marrow Thymus Lymphatic vessels Thoracic duct Spleen Lymph nodes (g) Lymphatic System/Immunity Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood. Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream. Houses white blood cells (lymphocytes) involved in immunity. The immune response mounts the attack against foreign substances within the body. Figure 1.3g

  26. Nasal cavity Pharynx Bronchus Larynx Trachea Lung (h) Respiratory System Keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide. The gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs. Figure 1.3h

  27. Oral cavity Esophagus Liver Stomach Small intestine Large intestine Rectum Anus (i) Digestive System Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells. Indigestible foodstuffs are eliminated as feces. Figure 1.3i

  28. Kidney Ureter Urinary bladder Urethra (j) Urinary System Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body. Regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of the blood. Figure 1.3j

  29. Mammary glands (in breasts) Prostate gland Ovary Penis Ductus deferens Testis Uterine tube Scrotum Uterus Vagina (l) Female Reproductive System (k) Male Reproductive System Overall function is production of offspring. Testes produce sperm and male sex hormone, and male ducts and glands aid in delivery of sperm to the female reproductive tract. Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones. The remaining female structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus. Mammary glands of female breasts produce milk to nourish the newborn. Figure 1.3k-l

  30. The __________ level of organization is the main theme presented in this book. • cellular • tissue • organ • organ system

  31. Organ Systems Interrelationships • All cells depend on organ systems to meet their survival needs • Organ systems work cooperatively to perform necessary life functions

  32. Digestive system Takes in nutrients, breaks them down, and eliminates unabsorbed matter (feces) Respiratory system Takes in oxygen and eliminates carbon dioxide Food O2 CO2 Cardiovascular system Via the blood, distributes oxygen and nutrients to all body cells and delivers wastes and carbon dioxide to disposal organs Blood CO2 O2 Urinary system Eliminates nitrogenous wastes and excess ions Heart Nutrients Interstitial fluid Nutrients and wastes pass between blood and cells via the interstitial fluid Integumentary system Protects the body as a whole from the external environment Feces Urine Figure 1.2

  33. Necessary Life Functions • Maintaining boundaries between internal and external environments • Plasma membranes • Skin • Movement (contractility) • Of body parts (skeletal muscle) • Of substances (cardiac and smooth muscle)

  34. Necessary Life Functions • Responsiveness: The ability to sense and respond to stimuli • Withdrawal reflex • Control of breathing rate • Digestion • Breakdown of ingested foodstuffs • Absorption of simple molecules into blood

  35. Necessary Life Functions • Metabolism: All chemical reactions that occur in body cells • Catabolism and anabolism • Excretion: The removal of wastes from metabolism and digestion • Urea, carbon dioxide, feces

  36. Necessary Life Functions • Reproduction • Cellular division for growth or repair • Production of offspring • Growth: Increase in size of a body part or of organism

  37. Survival Needs • Nutrients • Chemicals for energy and cell building • Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins • Oxygen • Essential for energy release (ATP production)

  38. Survival Needs • Water • Most abundant chemical in the body • Site of chemical reactions • Normal body temperature • Affects rate of chemical reactions • Appropriate atmospheric pressure • For adequate breathing and gas exchange in the lungs

  39. Of the eight necessary life functions, which of the following is not required for an individual’s survival? • Maintaining boundaries • Metabolism • Reproduction (organismal) • Excretion

  40. One survival need of humans is appropriate atmospheric pressure. At high altitudes where atmospheric pressure is lower, you might expect that oxygen acquisition would ____________. • decrease • increase twofold • increase threefold • remain unchanged

  41. Homeostasis • Maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment despite continuous outside changes • A dynamic state of equilibrium

  42. Homeostatic Control Mechanisms • Involve continuous monitoring and regulation of many factors (variables) • Nervous and endocrine systems accomplish the communication via nerve impulses and hormones

  43. Components of a Control Mechanism • Receptor (sensor) • Monitors the environment • Responds to stimuli (changes in controlled variables) • Control center • Determines the set point at which the variable is maintained • Receives input from receptor • Determines appropriate response

  44. Components of a Control Mechanism • Effector • Receives output from control center • Provides the means to respond • Response acts to reduce or enhance the stimulus (feedback)

  45. 4 Output:Information sent alongefferent pathway toeffector. 3 Input: Informationsent along afferentpathway to controlcenter. ControlCenter Afferentpathway Efferentpathway 2 Receptor Effector 5 Receptordetectschange. Responseof effectorfeeds backto reducethe effect ofstimulusand returnsvariable tohomeostaticlevel. 1 IMBALANCE Stimulusproduceschange invariable. BALANCE IMBALANCE Figure 1.4

  46. 1 IMBALANCE Stimulusproduceschange invariable. BALANCE IMBALANCE Figure 1.4, step 1

  47. 2 Receptor Receptordetectschange. 1 IMBALANCE Stimulusproduceschange invariable. BALANCE IMBALANCE Figure 1.4, step 2

  48. 3 Input: Informationsent along afferentpathway to controlcenter. ControlCenter Afferentpathway 2 Receptor Receptordetectschange. 1 IMBALANCE Stimulusproduceschange invariable. BALANCE IMBALANCE Figure 1.4, step 3

  49. 4 Output:Information sent alongefferent pathway toeffector. 3 Input: Informationsent along afferentpathway to controlcenter. ControlCenter Afferentpathway Efferentpathway 2 Receptor Effector Receptordetectschange. 1 IMBALANCE Stimulusproduceschange invariable. BALANCE IMBALANCE Figure 1.4, step 4

  50. 4 Output:Information sent alongefferent pathway toeffector. 3 Input: Informationsent along afferentpathway to controlcenter. ControlCenter Afferentpathway Efferentpathway 2 Receptor Effector 5 Receptordetectschange. Responseof effectorfeeds backto reducethe effect ofstimulusand returnsvariable tohomeostaticlevel. 1 IMBALANCE Stimulusproduceschange invariable. BALANCE IMBALANCE Figure 1.4, step 5