Double Reed Woodwinds Presented by: Kara Hamm & Lane Bewley
Bassoon • A large double reed instrument with a lower sound than the other woodwind instruments
The Beginning • Similar to the oboe • First appeared in 1650 • End of 1700’s; had 4-8 keys • Heckel family of Germany improved fingering and tone • Heckel company is leading bassoon manufacturer
The Basics • Bass member of double reeded woodwinds • Did you know…the Italian name for bassoon is “fagotto” meaning “bundle of sticks.” • Most people do not begin on bassoon because of the difficult fingerings. Having large hands helps.
Basic Information • The bassoon is pitched in Concert “C” Therefore, no transposition is required. • Music for the bassoon is notated in the bass and tenor clefs. • Normal range: 3 octaves from B-flat 1 to E-flat 5.
Construction • Tube of bassoon is 2.79 meters long, and is bent to make a height of 1.22 meters • Consists of a metal crook, or bocal, which fits into the bassoon • The reed is placed on the bocal • The bocal is a metal tube about 13-1/2 inches long
Construction (continued) • Reeds are made out of cane. • Most bassoons are made from maple wood or rosewood • Some models are now made of ebonite
Sound Production • Player blows air between the reeds • Vibrating air inside instrument travels over 9 feet to the bottom of the instrument then back to the top where the sound comes out. • Each note played has peak intensity of 500 hz
Sound Production (cont.) • Highest range: throaty • Middle range: large, full, and mellow • Lowest range: powerful and heavy
Contrabassoon • Sounds lower and is about two times longer than the bassoon • Because of unusual appearance, it is sometimes called the “clown of the orchestra”
History of Contrabassoon • Made in 1739 • constructed same as bassoon, but more compact because of folded tubes • Early models had holes which could be stopped with pegs to change the key of the instrument
Types of Bassoons • Sarrusaphone: double bass instrument of woodwind section which was made of brass and wood and was created by Sarrus, they are most commonly seen in wind ensemble and concert band. • Tenoroon: smaller than the bassoon and it sounds a perfect fifth higher than bassoon and it appeared during the nineteenth century.
Suggested Resources and Works Cited • http://www.apassion4jazz.net • http://www.dsokids.com • http://www.mathcs.duq.edu • http://library.thinkquest.org • http://www.bassoon.pe.kr • http://www.philharmonia.co.uk/thesoundexchange
History of the Oboe Family • First reed instrument by Egyptians: pressed barley straws in pipe with 3 to 4 holes • 12th century: shawm developed-brought to Europe from the East during the Crusades
History (continued) • 17th century • Oboe invented by Michel Philidor and Jean Hotteterre • Used in court of Louis XVI • Original name was hautbois meaning “high-wood” • Gradual modifications brought oboe to what it is today
Types There are four members of the oboe family which cover the soprano, alto, tenor, and bass ranges. Each of these are notated in the treble clef. Oboes usually play melody lines and are great for playing staccato melodies.
Oboe • Covers soprano range • Pitched in C • Timbre is focused and penetrating • Plays tuning role in orchestra
Construction of Oboe • 1 foot and 11.5 inches without reed • Usually made of grenadilla or African Blackwood • Sterling-silver or nickel plated keys • Upper joint, lower joint, bell • Reed made of blades of cane; sits at top; connected with a cork • Narrow conical bore, the hole running through the middle, that gets wider towards the bell
English Horn • Second most common double-reed • Tenor version • Pitched in F • Timbre is more mysterious and sorrowful • Common for 2nd oboist to switch between English horn and oboe
Construction of English Horn • Larger than oboe • 2 feet and 7.5 inches without bocal • Upper joint, lower joint, and onion shaped bell • Uses bocal, a thin, metal, curved pipe to which the reed is attached
Oboe D’amore • Pitched in A • Sounds muted and sweet • Alto range • Looks like small English horn; constructed like English horn
Bass Oboe • Pitched in C, but plays one octave lower than written • Timbre is murky and atmospheric • Rarely used today • Bocal is more drastically curved
Sound Production -Double reed goes between lips and is blown -Reeds vibrate against each other causing bursts of energy to enter the air column, which then causes the air column to vibrate -Pitch is determined by key hole the air escapes -The longer the air is in the tube, the slower the vibrations become resulting in a lower pitch.
For the Beginner • The recorder-a great tool for breath control, finger agility, and reading musical notation • Oboes are heavy and very expensive. Cheaper plastic versions are available but do not last long.
Motivating Resources • http://www.musicked.com • Disney Greats books
Works Cited & Suggested Resources • http://www.wisegeek.com • http://www.oboespace.com • http://www.vsl.co.at • http://www.mathcs.duq.edu • http://www.musicked.com • http://www.stagepass.com • http://www.bbc.co.uk
Works Cited (continued) • http://www.oboe.20m.com • http://www.philharmonia.co.uk/thesoundexchange • http://www.music.iastate.edu • http://www.orchestralibrary.com • http://www.elatril.com • http://www.scaper.com
…More Resources • http://www.dsokids.com • http://www.webreeds.com • http://www.youtube.com