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    Franois Houllier Item 4 EFI Position on research related to GM trees Annual Conference of EFI 2007

    1. The Title of the presentation. the name of the speaker Arial bold 20 pt title of the presentation Arial bold 36 pt subtitle Arial 26 pt. colour of the texts: white. To change the date in the bottom right corner: Nyt Yl- ja alatunnisteThe Title of the presentation. the name of the speaker Arial bold 20 pt title of the presentation Arial bold 36 pt subtitle Arial 26 pt. colour of the texts: white. To change the date in the bottom right corner: Nyt Yl- ja alatunniste

    2. A position about GM tree-related research, not about GM tree-based silviculture

    Doing research on a topic does neither mean that there will be direct applications nor that such applications are desired and/or desirable, But, of course, research may also lead to applications GM-tree related research covers a wide range of topics, disciplines and expertise Tree biology and biotechnology Assessment of ecological/environmental impacts Comparative assessment of alternative silvicultural systems Assessment of economic/social impacts

    3. A statement in three parts

    Context Process Statement This is the layout (appearance??) of the main pages of the presentation. You can add pages like this by selecting Lis Uusi dia and then selecting the sort of page you wish to use. Title Arial bold 30 pt, green (RGB values: 90/100/25) Main text Arial 20 pt, black If you wish to highlight certain words in your text, it is recommended that you make the words bold and change their colour to red (RGB values: 154/0/0) If you wish to make bullet lists (?), select Muotoile Luettelomerkit ja numerointi and choose the bullet type you wish to use. This is the layout (appearance??) of the main pages of the presentation. You can add pages like this by selecting Lis Uusi dia and then selecting the sort of page you wish to use. Title Arial bold 30 pt, green (RGB values: 90/100/25) Main text Arial 20 pt, black If you wish to highlight certain words in your text, it is recommended that you make the words bold and change their colour to red (RGB values: 154/0/0) If you wish to make bullet lists (?), select Muotoile Luettelomerkit ja numerointi and choose the bullet type you wish to use.

    4. A statement in three parts: the context

    Context EFI Board acknowledges that GM tree-related research is a controversial issue, with implications for many disciplines from biology, ecology and environmental sciences, to social and human sciences. The Board recognised its responsibility to issue a statement on the matter and consequently initiated a process of discussion and consideration. Process Statement This is the layout (appearance??) of the main pages of the presentation. You can add pages like this by selecting Lis Uusi dia and then selecting the sort of page you wish to use. Title Arial bold 30 pt, green (RGB values: 90/100/25) Main text Arial 20 pt, black If you wish to highlight certain words in your text, it is recommended that you make the words bold and change their colour to red (RGB values: 154/0/0) If you wish to make bullet lists (?), select Muotoile Luettelomerkit ja numerointi and choose the bullet type you wish to use. This is the layout (appearance??) of the main pages of the presentation. You can add pages like this by selecting Lis Uusi dia and then selecting the sort of page you wish to use. Title Arial bold 30 pt, green (RGB values: 90/100/25) Main text Arial 20 pt, black If you wish to highlight certain words in your text, it is recommended that you make the words bold and change their colour to red (RGB values: 154/0/0) If you wish to make bullet lists (?), select Muotoile Luettelomerkit ja numerointi and choose the bullet type you wish to use.

    5. The forestry context is different from the context in agriculture (1)

    Reasons for that are diverse Feed and food uses (crops) vs. non food uses (forests) Trees are long-living perennial species Trees are large organisms Specific targets (e.g. lignin contents and type in trees) Large (GM crops: 102 Mha in 2006) vs. restricted (GM forests) dissemination Different implication of large multinational companies Forests and trees are a symbol of Nature

    6. The forestry context is different from the context in agriculture (2)

    Reasons for that are diverse As a consequence (?), the controversy is less hot than for crops e.g. Number of citations under Google (25 August 2007) GM forest : 965 (vs. 79,000 for GM crop) GM tree : 919 (vs. 70,800 for GM plant)

    7. The context: positions taken by other organizations

    Several international (FAO, IUFRO Task Force Forests and Genetically Modified Trees) and national organizations (BBSRC, CSIRO, CIRAD, INRA, etc.) have expressed their position on GMOs and/or biotechnology either in general or with a special emphasis on research rarely with a specific reference to forest trees A few common features The need for innovation and the potential role of biotechnologies, including GM The necessity to investigate all sorts of impacts (direct-indirect, intentional-non intentional, short-long term, etc.)

    8. The context: the status in the EU in 2006 (1)

    GM plants (including GM trees) are a common lab tool for plant biologists Contained research using indoor facilities

    9. The context: the status in the EU in 2006 (2)

    GM plants are a common lab tool for plant biologists A few open-air field GM tree experiments in a few countries presently (Poland, Germany, Finland, France, Romania, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden) or in the past (UK, Romania, Netherlands, Portugal) Fruit trees: apple tree, Prunus sp., olive tree, Citrus sp. Forest trees: poplar, aspen, silver birch, Eucalyptus Former experiments: Norway spruce, pine, Eucalyptus Target traits: modified wood properties, resistance to a virus, fast growth, risk assessment (e.g. dissemination, non target insect species)

    10. The context: the status in the EU in 2006 (3)

    GM plants are a common lab tool for plant biologists A few open-air field GM tree experiments in a few countries presently or in the past No commercial release (i.e. no large scale application) neither presently nor foreseen

    11. The context in the world: FAO (December 2004)

    Traits targeted in genetic modification projects, in laboratory based experiments

    12. The context in the world: FAO (December 2004)

    Traits targeted in projects with GM trees in field trials

    13. The context in the world: FAO (December 2004)

    Issues addressed in field trials with GM trees

    14. The context in the world: FAO (December 2004)

    Commercial plantations Most respondents reported that they had no immediate plans for commercialization []. However, it has been reported (Su et al. 2003) that there are such plantations and one respondent described the commercial release of two GM tree species in China: Populus nigra, modified with the Bt gene for resistance to leaf-eating insects, with 80 ha of field trials on eight sites in seven provinces since 1999 and 200300 ha of commercial planting since 2002 (over one million cuttings have been propagated). Hybrid poplar 741 (P.alba [P.davidiana + P.simonii] P.tomentosa), modified with cry1Ac and API for resistance to leaf-eating insects, with field trials since 2001 and commercial planting since 2003 (currently only indicative data available on area planted). The respondent further reported that there are significant problems keeping track of the area planted, mainly because poplar is vegetatively propagated and there is confusion in nurseries as to what is genetically modified and what is not.

    15. A statement in three parts: a 3-years process

    Context Process A proposal for a Project Centre in 2004 EFI discussion paper 12 (2005) Discussion at the Annual Conference 2005 in Barcelona Electronic forum in late 2005 (open to EFI associate members) EFI SAB discussed the matter and advised the Board on the issue in August 2006 Statement This is the layout (appearance??) of the main pages of the presentation. You can add pages like this by selecting Lis Uusi dia and then selecting the sort of page you wish to use. Title Arial bold 30 pt, green (RGB values: 90/100/25) Main text Arial 20 pt, black If you wish to highlight certain words in your text, it is recommended that you make the words bold and change their colour to red (RGB values: 154/0/0) If you wish to make bullet lists (?), select Muotoile Luettelomerkit ja numerointi and choose the bullet type you wish to use. This is the layout (appearance??) of the main pages of the presentation. You can add pages like this by selecting Lis Uusi dia and then selecting the sort of page you wish to use. Title Arial bold 30 pt, green (RGB values: 90/100/25) Main text Arial 20 pt, black If you wish to highlight certain words in your text, it is recommended that you make the words bold and change their colour to red (RGB values: 154/0/0) If you wish to make bullet lists (?), select Muotoile Luettelomerkit ja numerointi and choose the bullet type you wish to use.

    16. A statement in three parts: the statement itself (1)

    Context Process Statement In order to provide the relevant public authorities with sound and unbiased scientific data and information, GM-tree related research is needed. This is the layout (appearance??) of the main pages of the presentation. You can add pages like this by selecting Lis Uusi dia and then selecting the sort of page you wish to use. Title Arial bold 30 pt, green (RGB values: 90/100/25) Main text Arial 20 pt, black If you wish to highlight certain words in your text, it is recommended that you make the words bold and change their colour to red (RGB values: 154/0/0) If you wish to make bullet lists (?), select Muotoile Luettelomerkit ja numerointi and choose the bullet type you wish to use. This is the layout (appearance??) of the main pages of the presentation. You can add pages like this by selecting Lis Uusi dia and then selecting the sort of page you wish to use. Title Arial bold 30 pt, green (RGB values: 90/100/25) Main text Arial 20 pt, black If you wish to highlight certain words in your text, it is recommended that you make the words bold and change their colour to red (RGB values: 154/0/0) If you wish to make bullet lists (?), select Muotoile Luettelomerkit ja numerointi and choose the bullet type you wish to use.

    17. A statement in three parts: the statement itself (2)

    Context Process Statement In order to provide the relevant public authorities with sound and unbiased scientific data and information, GM-tree related research is needed. This research should: contribute to the maintenance and development of autonomous multidisciplinary competences and expertise in this field; This is the layout (appearance??) of the main pages of the presentation. You can add pages like this by selecting Lis Uusi dia and then selecting the sort of page you wish to use. Title Arial bold 30 pt, green (RGB values: 90/100/25) Main text Arial 20 pt, black If you wish to highlight certain words in your text, it is recommended that you make the words bold and change their colour to red (RGB values: 154/0/0) If you wish to make bullet lists (?), select Muotoile Luettelomerkit ja numerointi and choose the bullet type you wish to use. This is the layout (appearance??) of the main pages of the presentation. You can add pages like this by selecting Lis Uusi dia and then selecting the sort of page you wish to use. Title Arial bold 30 pt, green (RGB values: 90/100/25) Main text Arial 20 pt, black If you wish to highlight certain words in your text, it is recommended that you make the words bold and change their colour to red (RGB values: 154/0/0) If you wish to make bullet lists (?), select Muotoile Luettelomerkit ja numerointi and choose the bullet type you wish to use.

    18. A statement in three parts: the statement itself (3)

    Context Process Statement In order to provide the relevant public authorities with sound and unbiased scientific data and information, GM-tree related research is needed. This research should: contribute to the maintenance and development of autonomous multidisciplinary competences and expertise in this field; inform the policy process; however policy, regulation and operational functions regarding GM trees should be the responsibility of the relevant public authorities; This is the layout (appearance??) of the main pages of the presentation. You can add pages like this by selecting Lis Uusi dia and then selecting the sort of page you wish to use. Title Arial bold 30 pt, green (RGB values: 90/100/25) Main text Arial 20 pt, black If you wish to highlight certain words in your text, it is recommended that you make the words bold and change their colour to red (RGB values: 154/0/0) If you wish to make bullet lists (?), select Muotoile Luettelomerkit ja numerointi and choose the bullet type you wish to use. This is the layout (appearance??) of the main pages of the presentation. You can add pages like this by selecting Lis Uusi dia and then selecting the sort of page you wish to use. Title Arial bold 30 pt, green (RGB values: 90/100/25) Main text Arial 20 pt, black If you wish to highlight certain words in your text, it is recommended that you make the words bold and change their colour to red (RGB values: 154/0/0) If you wish to make bullet lists (?), select Muotoile Luettelomerkit ja numerointi and choose the bullet type you wish to use.

    19. A statement in three parts: the statement itself (4)

    Context Process Statement In order to provide the relevant public authorities with sound and unbiased scientific data and information, GM-tree related research is needed. This research should: contribute to the maintenance and development of autonomous multidisciplinary competences and expertise in this field; inform the policy process [] explore alternative paths and options, and assess the various technical, economic, social and ecological impacts, benefits, costs and risks associated with GM trees. This is the layout (appearance??) of the main pages of the presentation. You can add pages like this by selecting Lis Uusi dia and then selecting the sort of page you wish to use. Title Arial bold 30 pt, green (RGB values: 90/100/25) Main text Arial 20 pt, black If you wish to highlight certain words in your text, it is recommended that you make the words bold and change their colour to red (RGB values: 154/0/0) If you wish to make bullet lists (?), select Muotoile Luettelomerkit ja numerointi and choose the bullet type you wish to use. This is the layout (appearance??) of the main pages of the presentation. You can add pages like this by selecting Lis Uusi dia and then selecting the sort of page you wish to use. Title Arial bold 30 pt, green (RGB values: 90/100/25) Main text Arial 20 pt, black If you wish to highlight certain words in your text, it is recommended that you make the words bold and change their colour to red (RGB values: 154/0/0) If you wish to make bullet lists (?), select Muotoile Luettelomerkit ja numerointi and choose the bullet type you wish to use.

    20. A statement in three parts: the statement itself (5)

    Context Process Statement In order to provide the relevant public authorities with sound and unbiased scientific data and information, GM-tree related research is needed [] GM-tree related research should strictly comply with public safety regulations. Forest research organizations involved in such research should ensure that precautionary procedures have been developed and published. This is the layout (appearance??) of the main pages of the presentation. You can add pages like this by selecting Lis Uusi dia and then selecting the sort of page you wish to use. Title Arial bold 30 pt, green (RGB values: 90/100/25) Main text Arial 20 pt, black If you wish to highlight certain words in your text, it is recommended that you make the words bold and change their colour to red (RGB values: 154/0/0) If you wish to make bullet lists (?), select Muotoile Luettelomerkit ja numerointi and choose the bullet type you wish to use. This is the layout (appearance??) of the main pages of the presentation. You can add pages like this by selecting Lis Uusi dia and then selecting the sort of page you wish to use. Title Arial bold 30 pt, green (RGB values: 90/100/25) Main text Arial 20 pt, black If you wish to highlight certain words in your text, it is recommended that you make the words bold and change their colour to red (RGB values: 154/0/0) If you wish to make bullet lists (?), select Muotoile Luettelomerkit ja numerointi and choose the bullet type you wish to use.

    21. A statement in three parts: the statement itself (6)

    Context Process Statement In order to provide the relevant public authorities with sound and unbiased scientific data and information, GM-tree related research is needed [] GM-tree related research should strictly comply with public safety regulations [] There is also a need for monitoring developments of relevance to European forestry from all over the world. This is the layout (appearance??) of the main pages of the presentation. You can add pages like this by selecting Lis Uusi dia and then selecting the sort of page you wish to use. Title Arial bold 30 pt, green (RGB values: 90/100/25) Main text Arial 20 pt, black If you wish to highlight certain words in your text, it is recommended that you make the words bold and change their colour to red (RGB values: 154/0/0) If you wish to make bullet lists (?), select Muotoile Luettelomerkit ja numerointi and choose the bullet type you wish to use. This is the layout (appearance??) of the main pages of the presentation. You can add pages like this by selecting Lis Uusi dia and then selecting the sort of page you wish to use. Title Arial bold 30 pt, green (RGB values: 90/100/25) Main text Arial 20 pt, black If you wish to highlight certain words in your text, it is recommended that you make the words bold and change their colour to red (RGB values: 154/0/0) If you wish to make bullet lists (?), select Muotoile Luettelomerkit ja numerointi and choose the bullet type you wish to use.

    22. Thank you for your attention Discussion is welcome

    This is the layout (appearance??) of the main pages of the presentation. You can add pages like this by selecting Lis Uusi dia and then selecting the sort of page you wish to use. Title Arial bold 30 pt, green (RGB values: 90/100/25) Main text Arial 20 pt, black If you wish to highlight certain words in your text, it is recommended that you make the words bold and change their colour to red (RGB values: 154/0/0) If you wish to make bullet lists (?), select Muotoile Luettelomerkit ja numerointi and choose the bullet type you wish to use. This is the layout (appearance??) of the main pages of the presentation. You can add pages like this by selecting Lis Uusi dia and then selecting the sort of page you wish to use. Title Arial bold 30 pt, green (RGB values: 90/100/25) Main text Arial 20 pt, black If you wish to highlight certain words in your text, it is recommended that you make the words bold and change their colour to red (RGB values: 154/0/0) If you wish to make bullet lists (?), select Muotoile Luettelomerkit ja numerointi and choose the bullet type you wish to use.