POOR! Coffee – problems due to worldwide overproduction Sugar/Sugarcane – for rum, not enough flatlands and rain Local consumption: rice, corn, yams, vegetables, fruits, mangoes Manufacturing: shrunk since the 1970’s due to political instability and international trade embargo Baseballs – manufacture the most baseballs Foodstuffs, beverages, household goods, building materials are for domestic consumption Cigarettes, detergents, bath soap – top three goods manufactured
Mining – ferronickel, bauxite, ore Sugar – most advanced farming techniques & 4th largest producer Coffee, cocoa beans, & tobacco – first produced by Taino Indians Plantains Others - Rice, corn, sorghum, plantains, beans, tubers, bananas, peanuts, guavas, tamarind, passion fruit, coconuts, tomatoes, carrots, lettuce, cabbage, scallions, coriander, onions, and garlic Nontraditional exports - ornamental plants, winter vegetables, citrus and tropical fruits, spices, nuts Livestock – beef and poultry Latifundios (large landholders), Minifundios (small landholders), Campesinos (very small landholders), tarea = 0.15 acres
Sugar – main crop that declined after Soviet Union fell Nickel – 2nd largest export Coffee Tobacco – famous for cigars Cattle Others: rice, citrus fruits, bananas, pineapples, potatoes, tomatoes, sweet potatoes Fishing *Must use animal power instead of Soviet built farm machines for lack of spare parts.
Timber to agriculture and fishing Sugar biggest export Bananas, oranges, pomelos, grapefruit, cacao, seafood Marijuana Industry is agriculture based: flour milling, production of citrus concentrate, animal feed Local consumption: rice, kidney beans, beef, pork, chicken, milk, eggs, corn, beer, cigarettes, soft drinks, furniture, construction material Fishing: shrimp, lobster tails, conch. Fishermen work in cooperatives = make more money than working for a company. Going to farming fish because the sea has seen a decline in the number of exportable fish due to over fishing. Sugarcane: cutting sugarcane is one of the worst jobs in the world, since the cane fields are full of snakes and rats, and the leaves on the cane are razor sharp
Agricultural reform in 1960’s Plantations of bananas & cacao, rice paddies, fruit orchards, sugarcane fields, and cattle ranches prosper inland. Largest Exporter of Bananas Fishing is an important industry for towns and villages along the Pacific coast. Oil discovery 1970’s – has devastated the native peoples of the Amazon area Domestic consumption – Farmers work their own small plots growing cassava, peanuts, bananas, plantains, coffee, cacao, cotton, and corn.
Coffee Cacao Lumber and forest products Oil and oil exploration Cooperative farms or small plots for farmers growing cotton, citrus fruits, oranges, corn, rice and vegetables Fishing – anchovy which is ground to form fish meal and is one of Peru’s bigger exports
Tin has been the mainstay of the economy for the most of the 20th century but in the 1980’s the tin market collapsed Lowlands are rich in oil, gas, iron, gold, and timber and are suitable for agriculture East-facing slope of the Andes produces: forest goods, feathers and medicinal plants. Coca (the leaves produce the drug cocaine today) which is strictly controlled. Coca is considered to be a sacred plant. Native Americans chew the mildly narcotic leaves to stave off cold and hunger and use specially selected leaves for magic and divination. Oil and gas were discovered and are now the most important source of income.
Crops include: Cotton, sugarcane, soybeans, corn, wheat, tobacco, and fruit: 45% of the population is involved in agriculture; timber is cleared to make way for more farmland Cattle ranches Cereals and Milk products - Mennonites produce Wine production is a growing business. Farmers produce vegetables and many different types of fruit, including grapes.
MEAT! MEAT! MEAT! MEAT! Pampas – became the center of the international beef trade, quality beef cattle and sheep, also an area of growing crops Sunflower seeds and logging are important on the northern border plains Mining – iron ore, uranium Sheep
Atacama Desert – source of wealth for many years at its heart is the world’s largest open-pit copper mine, Chuquicamata, which employs about eleven thousand miners *by Chilean standards these miners live well because of their importance in the work force enabling them to command good wages and benefits Sulfur mines in the highlands Fruit and almonds are replacing older crops in the central valley region Wines – Chile is the largest exporter of wine in Latin America Trees – many different trees in parts of the country were the basis for a successful timber and furniture trade
Agriculture is not the main economic sector Manufacturing is the main economic sector– oil industry (began 1970’s): products include farm machinery, chemicals, clothing, iron & steel, processed foods, petroleum, beer, rubber, wood pulp, paper, automobiles, railway cars: with available cheap skilled labor, Mexico is industrializing at a rapid pace Mining: Silver – world’s leading producer Petroleum – one of the world’s leading producers: some of the largest oil reserves in the Western Hemisphere (the size of Saudi Arabia’s): a billion barrels each year (operated by government) Tourism – “the industry without chimneys” 20 million visitors annually
Sugar – decline due to labor shortages Coffee – decline due to hurricanes and competition from US Tobacco, Pineapples, Coconuts Poultry – increasing in production Rice – Failed Attempt *Labor shortages and using land in different ways Coffee – primary export and source of income Cacao & Indigo but Cotton was affected by Civil War and economic conditions Sugar & Shrimp (farming) – 3rd & 4th largest exports Soya, Cucumbers, Sesame - recent Tropical flowers and ornamental plants
Bananas - #1 export Coffee - #2 export Beef Cotton, tobacco, pineapples, sugarcane, vegetable, shrimp Forestry – from mahogany to pine Mining – gold, silver, lead, zinc, cadmium (richest in CA) Bananas – leading export & Coffee Shrimp (#1), anchovies, herring, lobster Raw sugar, petroleum products, sugar cane, rice, corn, coffee, beans, tobacco, chicken, cattle, milk, eggs, and fish Forestry & Fishing
Bananas – 2nd largest exporter (after Ecuador) Coffee, sugar, cocoa, cotton, hemp, livestock Nontraditional exports – flowers, ornamental plants and foliage, fish and shrimp, melons, macadamia nuts, pineapples Domestic – beans, corn, plantains, potatoes, rice, sorghum, onions, African palms (oil), cattle, pigs, horses, mules, sheep, goats, chickens *renowned for environmental efforts although the laws are often disregared
Traditionally the economy has been based on agriculture Coffee – major crop, but declining due to workers being used for production in oil and minerals Oil & Minerals – increased as an export Emeralds – high grade and the largest producer Coal – has the largest coal reserves in South America Orchids – claims to be the world’s center for exporting these flowers Domestically – textile industry, steel mills, chemical plants, and factories Sugar plantations, sugar processing plants, cattle ranches, coffee, rice, tobacco, cotton in the Southern highlands Timber trade, gold mining, fishing, growing basic crops of yucca, plantains, and beans in the Pacific lowlands
Agriculture production 25% of population – wine production, coffee growing and plantations, collecting nuts and palm oils, cattle ranches Also: oranges, rice, cotton, and soybeans are grown in the area of Sao Paulo, Brazil’s largest city Also: corn, soybeans, mines, and cattle ranches in the area of Brasilia Industry 25% of population – factories producing everything from canned orange juice to cars to electronic equipment along the Amazon river Service industries are where a majority of the workers are – such as in banks, or in the government or army Mining – iron ore Domestic consumption – cassava, sweet potatoes, corn *Along the Amazon river rubber was the boom, but it collapsed
1970’s under direction of President Carlos Andres Perez oil and iron industries were nationalized – 1980’s everything fell because of the overproduction of oil – 1990 not yet improved Highlands – sugarcane, bananas, cacao, cotton Latin American immigrants – work as taxi drivers, domestic servants, and in the construction industry Factories – produce processed foods, leather and hides, glass, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals Domestic crops include potatoes, wheat, onions, carrots, garlic, fruit such as oranges and mangoes, mustard, orchids, dahlias, carnations
Coffee – 1st, produce more than any other country in Central America, it has a smoky, spicy flavor Sugar – 2nd Bananas, cardamom (one of the world’s major suppliers), cotton – 3rd Vegetables, fruit, flowers, sugarcane, fishing Manufacturing industries: food, tobacco, sugar processing, pharmaceuticals, rubber (tires), cement, paper, and textiles, petroleum, mining of antimony, iron ore, and lead Cattle plantations Domestic consumption: corn, beans, squash
Cotton and Coffee – Most important crops Corn, beans, sugarcane, bananas – others Rice most important crop raised for use in Nicaragua Forestry hot in 1970’s and beginning to be profitable again Minerals are there but the country is too poor to mine for them Trade with other countries: shrimps, lobsters, and fish