elements of map composition n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Elements of Map Composition PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Elements of Map Composition

play fullscreen
1 / 44

Elements of Map Composition

895 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Elements of Map Composition

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Elements of Map Composition OR How to make a decent map!

  2. Steps to Creating a Map • Define the Purpose of the map • Audience? • How will map be used? • Restatement into a design problem • Visualization to Creation • Design solution - arrangement of map’s image elements to facilitate communication • Sort of an outline • Graphic design

  3. The Well Designed Map… • Has a single purpose! • Size and scale determine the level of detail • You cannot simply blow up a map from 8.5-11 to something that would hang on the wall. • A small map size will limit detail • A large map viewed from a distance has same problem • Reader can easily interpret features • Reader can instantaneously understand its message (or not, if that is the purpose).

  4. For example If you were trying to make the case that you should be able to limit the publics use of your lake which map would you use?

  5. Elements of a thematic map • Title • Legend • Scale • Credits • Mapped and unmapped areas • Graticule • Borders and neatlines • Symbols • Place names and labels

  6. Mapped Area Title Border Legend Neatline Gradicule Purpose, metadata Unmapped Area Credits Scale

  7. Too Much White Space! No Placenames ArcView Export screw up in 8.3! Only went to 3000 m in Layout!

  8. The elements one-by-one • Title • Draws attention by virtue of its size (big!) • focuses attention on primary purpose of content of map • not always needed • Legend • Principle reference to symbology • MUST be there

  9. The elements one-by-one • Scale • A MUST! • Types • graphic -- the bar • verbal -- 1” = 1 mile (watch this one) • a ratio 1/24,000 (this one too) • Because of ubiquitous nature of Xerox machines the graphic scale is a must, the others are optional

  10. The elements one-by-one • Credits • another, older, term for metadata • Some metadata can be placed on map • Data source • Statement of accuracy, both spatial and attribute • Date data collected, date map made • Your name, assignment # etc…

  11. The elements one-by-one • Mapped and unmapped areas • Objects, land, water, and other geographical features important to the purpose of the map • makes the composition a map rather than a diagram • The most prominent map element • Graticule & Grids • Graticule – geographic coordinates • Often omitted • useful if location info is important and there are no features like roads or steams • Or if you need to fill space with something • Grid - feature at B3

  12. The elements one-by-one • Borders and neatlines • Borders serve to restrain eye movement and focus attention on the map. A Border surrounds all the elements of a map. • Neatlines are: • finer than borders • drawn inside borders • mainly decoration

  13. Location of St, Louis Location of St, Louis Legend -adf asdf adfafffdsf Legend -adf asdf adfafffdsf Borders or Not • You can use solid fills to define map area

  14. The elements one-by-one • Symbology • can be actual symbols (style of city point) and/or colors and patterns • most important part of map -- if user does not know what the symbolization is the map is useless • Designer has little control over placement (location should be as accurate as possible given scale) but can control size and color

  15. The elements one-by-one • Place names and labels • Primary means of communicating to user • Orients user on map (similar to Graticule) • Can provide important info re map purpose

  16. Composition • You have all the data • You have the symbolization plan • Now you have to visualize the map • A creative process • Trial and error process • Where to put borders, neatlines • What style of borders, neatlines • Where does the legend go? • The title • And so on

  17. Composition • Purpose of composition • Forces designer or organize the visual material • Stresses the purpose of the map • Directs the users attention • Develops an aesthetic approach for the map

  18. Visual center: 5% height aboveGeometric center Arrange content around this point Geometric center Composition: Planar Organization • Balance • visual impact of arrangement • is the map “heavy” at top, bottom, sides???

  19. Visual weight • depends on location • obj weight increases with distance from center • obj at top are heavier than those at bottom • obj on right are heavier than those on left • depends on size (Duh!) • depends on color, interest, and isolation • Red>Blue, Bright>dark • complex > simple • isolated > groups • For Example …

  20. Which is better balanced?

  21. Artist Engineer More Visual Balance

  22. Unequal divisions of space more interesting than equal divisions

  23. Movement of reader’s eye - upper left to lower right Field Focus

  24. Using Eye Movement Eye goes left to right Generally you want the reader to see the map BEFORE seeing the legend – can’t always do#

  25. St. Louis too far from visual center, balance not bad, however Better, but a little heavy on right Balance with legend etc.

  26. Location of St, Louis Legend -adf asdf adfafffdsf

  27. Location of St, Louis

  28. Size / white space problems

  29. Size / white space problems

  30. Text • Use mixture of upper and lower case • ALL UPPER CASE IS HARDER TO READ • Use sans serif text • No fancy fonts • Big print for important stuff • Little print for not so important stuff

  31. Using Color • Color is tricky • There are definite color preferences • There are definite color combination preferences • There are standard color codes (like for planning) • The map should NOT be garish!

  32. So • Creating maps is a creating a document for a specific purpose -- to communicate something to the reader • It is an iterative process • There are some basic rules or guides that can be used – described above an in the on-line course module.

  33. Summary of Guidelines • Map layout – where are the pieces going to go – major pieces – visual center – eye path – uneven juxtaposition of parts • The map area and what’s in it • Legend placement (usually to right of map • Scale bar, North Arrow • Balance • White space • Map Title – Large – not always needed

  34. Summary of Guidelines • Credits (Metadata) usually present • For FOR557- Author’s name & date! • Borders and neatlines. • Border around ALL map pieces or solid fill • Neatlines (or fill) around (in) various pieces • Color – tricky – but not garish!

  35. Map Evaluation Criteria • Graphic Map ……………………………………..50% • Border (or fill)……………10% • White space …………………5% • Balance…………………………...5% • Color………………………………..5% • N arrow, legend …………..10% • Neatlines (or fill)…………..5% • Graphics ……………………….10% • Total ………………………………………….……….50%

  36. Map Evaluation Criteria • Title …………………………………………..5% • Legend ………………………………………20% • All features represented • Only those specific feature types present • Good graphically • Scale Bar …………………………………..10% • Credits ………………………………… …….5% • Map Works…………………………………10% • Sub Total……………………………………………..50% • Grand Total……………………………………………………100%

  37. Graphics