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Brief Introduction: Indonesia PowerPoint Presentation
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Brief Introduction: Indonesia

Brief Introduction: Indonesia

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Brief Introduction: Indonesia

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  1. Brief Introduction: Indonesia

  2. Images of Indonesia

  3. Images of Indonesia • Largest Archipelagic State (230 millions) • “Unity in Diversity” • Most populous Muslim majority country – non Islamic state • Modern Economy – hit hard by 1997 crisis • Ethnic and Religious Violence + Global Terrorism • Corruption and Military Involvement in Politics

  4. Pre-Colonial Indonesia • Indonesia as colonial/post colonial term (India Archipelago 19th century – both by colonial power and nationalist) • Trade region: China/India/Middle East/Europe – spice trade • No single/comprehensive ancient state – series of ancient kingdom  7th century Srivijaya (Buddhism and Hinduism) 8th Cent. Sailendra • 13th – 16th century Islamization: localized • Javanese Domination (demography, economy, and politics)

  5. European Colonization • 1512: Portuguese – monopoly of spice trade + Catholic • 1602: Dutch VOC (negotiation with local elites)  1800 Dutch East India (more plantation) 1900s Ethical Policy (education for local population for colonial bureaucracy + western educated nationalist elite) • 1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty (Dividing Malaysia and Indonesia) • (Modern) Nationalist movements since 1908: Religious, Indonesian Nationalist (1927), Socialist (1928) • WW II: Japanese Occupation: Republic of Indonesia and the creation of modern Indonesian army (opt. National Indies Army by Dutch)

  6. Post Colonial Indonesia: Sukarno • 1945-1949: Struggle with the Netherlands • Malay as Bahasa Indonesia: imagined community (1928: One Nation – Indonesia, One People – Indonesian, One Language – Indonesia) • National Culture (Javanese domination) • 1945-1966: Sukarno – Nonaligned • 1958: “Guided Democracy” – martial law  military in politic • Islamic Insurgency (Darul Islam 48-62) and Communist Movement (PKI)

  7. Post Colonial Indonesia: Suharto • 1965: Political Turmoil (PKI V.S. Army) • 1966: Coup + Outlawing PKI • 1967: The New Order – Gen. Suharto (Golkar) • Political Suppression, Corruption, But Economic Growth (Oil), Patronage system with Chinese Merchant • 1975 Invasion of East Timor

  8. Economic Crisis and Aftermath • 1997 melt down • Anti-Chinese Riot • 1998 Suharto Resigned • 1999 East Timor Independence • 2004 Settling with Aceh • From Islamic Insurgency to Terrorism (JI – Jemaah Islamiyah since 80s)

  9. Reference • Kingsbury, D. (2005). South-East Asia: A Political Profile. Melbourne, Oxford University Press. • Lamoureux, F. (2003). Indonesia: A Global Studies Handbook. Santa Barbara, CA, ABC-CLIO. • Owen, N. G., Ed. (2005). The Emergence of Modern Southeast Asia: A New History. Honolulu, University of Hawai'i Press • Wikepedia: Indonesia, History of Indonesia