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The Effect of Smell on Taste

The Effect of Smell on Taste

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The Effect of Smell on Taste

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  1. The Effect of Smell on Taste By Kesav R. Dale T. Daniel F. And Mike P.

  2. The Olfactory System • Olfactory receptors line nasal epithelium, axon extends through pores in bones of skull, dendrite has branches, olfactory cilia that contain receptor proteins for odorants, protected by a thin layer of mucus

  3. Olfactory System • Receptors send axons to olfactory bulb, in primates lies over nose, in other vertebrates posterior to nose • Axons from olfactory bulb enter brain via olfactory tract, project to primary olfactory cortex or pyriform cortex on anterioventral of anterioventral of telencephalon, no passage through thalamus

  4. Taste • Taste is one of the five senses used by the brain to distinguish certain aspects of the natural world, and discern poisons and unhealthy foods • The main instrument used to taste is the tongue • However, recognition and memory also plays a role in taste

  5. The Tongue • The tongue has clusters of taste-receptor cells in taste buds. • Taste buds are organized into five groups of sensors: Bitter Sour Sweet Salty Umami

  6. Taste Buds • Gustatory receptors found on the tongue, throat, and oral lining (primarily the cheeks) • Taste pores cluster together to form taste buds • Each receptor is connected through a synapse to at least one sensory neuron leading to the back of the brain

  7. How Is Flavor Recognized? • Collaboration of taste, smell, and the brain • Sensed by taste sensations, food temperature, texture, and odor.

  8. What Causes Smell and Taste Disorders? • Aging or birth defects • Several other causes such as laryngitis and smoking

  9. Disturbance of Smell • Transport olfactory loss • Sensory olfactory losses • Others including specific anosmia and and partial anosmia

  10. Effects of Disorders • Loss of senses • Loss of ability to distinguish flavor

  11. How to Diagnose Disorders • Several easy tests, such as the “scratch-and-sniff” test and the “sip, spit and rinse” test.

  12. Medication • Several treatments to improve conditions • No proper medication

  13. Bibliography • Jacob, Tim. “Taste- A Brief Tutorial.” http://www.cf.ac.uk/biosci/staff/jacob/te aching/sensory/taste.html. Accessed 4/25/04. • Encyclopaedia Encarta. “The Tongue.” http://www.encarta.com. Accessed 4/23/04. • Anonymous. “The Sense of Taste. http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultrauet/BiologyPages/T/Taste.htm. Accessed 4/22/04. • Anonymous. “Smell and Taste Disorders.” http://www.entnet.org/healthinfo/topics/smell_taste.cfm. Accessed 4/19/04.