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Solar System

Solar System

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Solar System

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Presentation Transcript

  1. and more Solar System

  2. Gravity holds it together

  3. Our Good Old Solar System Distance Not To Scale

  4. Our New and Improved Solar System Distance Not To Scale

  5. The Solar System • The Solar System consists of the Sun and the other celestial objects gravitationally bound to it: the eight planets, their 165 known moons, three currently identified dwarf planets (including Pluto) and their four known moons, and billions of small bodies. This last category includes asteroids, Kuiper belt objects, comets, meteoroids, and interplanetary dust.

  6. Solar System Formation • Gravity pulls together gas and dust • The Sun begins to form. • Clumps of material grow larger and larger. • Planetesimals form • Planets form • The process is ongoing we are still growing

  7. At the center… our Sun. • Our Sun is an average star that is over 4 billion years old. • The Sun makes up over 99 percent of the mass in the solar system! • Together, all of the Planets, Moons, Asteroids, Comets and gas make up less than 1 percent.

  8. Our Sun • The Sun on average is 93 million miles (150 million kilometers) away from the Earth. • However, our orbit is not a perfect circle. We are get closer and farther away.

  9. The Inner Planets • Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars • They are found between the asteroid belt and the Sun • They are rocky!

  10. But not that Rocky!

  11. Mercury • Smallest planet • No Moons • Most Dense • Most Extreme Temperature Range • Heavily Cratered • 800 mile wide crater (Caloris Basin) • Days are longer than the Years • Fastest Planet • Named after the Roman God of Speed

  12. Venus • Hottest planet (average Temperature) • Named after the Goddess of Beauty and Love. • Cloud Covered • Intense Pressure • No Moons • Similar in Size and Composition to Earth • Rotates inreverseof Earth • Thousands ofVolcanoes • Has Craters Clouds and Surface Shown

  13. Earth • You live here • Water is found as a solid, liquid and gas. • One moon • 8,000 mile diameter • 6,700,000,000+ people

  14. Earth Geometry • Rotation / Revolutions • Seasons – Earth’s Tilted Axis • Earth’s Axis and Magnet Pole are not the same • The 26,000 year wobble

  15. Moon Rise Earth Rise

  16. Apogee and Perigee • The Moon’s orbit is not a perfect circle… sometimes we are closer and sometimes we are further away! • The visible difference is about 14 percent.

  17. Earth / Moon Interactions Lunar Phases • New • Crescent • Quarter • Gibbous • Full • (Waxing and Waning)

  18. Earth / Moon Interactions

  19. Earth / Moon Interactions • Tides (Caused by Gravity)

  20. Tides • Spring Tides • High Highs and Low Lows • Neap Tides • Less range between high and low tides Distance Not To Scale

  21. Tides • Spring Tides • High Highs and Low Lows • Neap Tides • Less range between high and low tides Distance Not To Scale

  22. Earth / Moon Interactions • Eclipses (Solar / Lunar )

  23. Eclipse Solar (Sun is Blocked out) Lunar (Moon is Blocked out) Distance Not To Scale

  24. Eclipse Solar Eclipse as seen from the ISS

  25. Mars • Smaller than Earth • Has two small moons • Largest Volcano • Largest Rift • Polar Caps • Most likely people will someday walk on Mars

  26. Mars • The Moons of Mars… Phobos and Deimos

  27. Mars • Northern Ice Cap of Mars

  28. Asteroid Belt • Asteroids are primordial objects leftover from the formation of the Solar System • It has been estimated that the total mass of the Main Asteroid Belt may total less than 1/1000th of the mass of the Earth.

  29. Jupiter • Largest Planet • Most Moons 40+ • 4 Moons are Large • Rings • Gas Planet • Red Spot is a Storm • Shortest Day • King of the Roman Gods

  30. Jupiter Jupiter size comparison

  31. Jupiter • Jupiter is made of mostly hydrogen and helium. • Jupiter may have a rocky core

  32. Jupiter Jupiter and moons size comparison and surface pictures of the moons

  33. Jupiter Jupiter cloud movement animation.

  34. Saturn • Large Gas Planet • Many Moons 38+ • Most / biggest Rings • 1 orbit takes 30 Earth Years • Saturn was a major Roman deity of agriculture and harvest.

  35. Saturn • Saturn size comparison

  36. Uranus • Discovered by William Herschel on 13 March 1781 • Tilted on it’s side • May have had a major collision • 20 or more Moons • Rings (Discovered when a Star “Winked”) • Uranus is • 83 percent hydrogen • 15 percent helium • 2 percent methane • and traces of acetylene. • Uranus was the father of Saturn in mythology.

  37. Uranus • Uranus compared to the Earth. • Just look at the size of Uranus!

  38. Neptune • Great Dark Spot • Wizard’s Eye • 8 or more Moons • Rings • Named after Neptune, the god of the sea

  39. Neptune • Earth and Neptune size comparison.

  40. Neptune

  41. The Dwarf Planets • The International Astronomical Union (IAU), the official scientific body for astronomical nomenclature, defines a "dwarf planet" as a celestial body within the Solar System that satisfies these four conditions: • is in orbit around the Sun • has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (near-spherical) shape • has not cleared the neighborhood around its orbit • is not a satellite of another planet

  42. Ceres • Located in the Asteroid Belt (between Mars and Jupiter) • Discovered by: Giuseppe Piazzi • Discovery date: January 1, 1801 • Largest of the known Dwarf Planets

  43. Ceres Ceres compared to our Moon.

  44. Ceres

  45. Artist Conception of Pluto and Charon Pluto • Has at least 1 moon • Most Elliptical Orbit • 1 orbit takes 248 Earth Years • Most likely a Kuiper Belt Object • Composition may be similar to a Comet • 3 Natural Satellites • Pluto’s large moon is Charon

  46. Eris • Located in the “Scattered Disc” beyond Pluto. • Has 1 known moon • Discovered by: M. E. Brown, C. A. Trujillo, D. L. Rabinowitz • Discovery date: October 21, 2003 • Formally known as Planet X or Zena

  47. Other possible Dwarf Planets • 2005 FY9("Easterbunny") • Orcus • Sedna • 2003 EL61 ("Santa") • Quaoar • 2002 TC302 • Varuna • 2002 UX25 • 2002 TX300 • Ixion

  48. Other possible Dwarf Planets

  49. Kuiper Belt • The Kuiper Belt is made of primitive remnants from the early accretion phases of the solar system.

  50. Oort Cloud • The Oort cloud is a spherical cloud of comets situated about 50,000 to 100,000 AU from the Sun.