European Russia Joseph Herro firstname.lastname@example.org Geography 308 (Russia and Eastern Europe) Professor Zoltan Grossman University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire Spring 2005 Tension, Disilutionment, and Hope in the Age of Uncertainty
Politics “Threat” from Muslim South “Threat” from U.S. led West “Threat” from Within Society Piracy Pop Culture Population Overview
Karelians in Karelia Komi Republic Chuvash in Chuvashia Tartars in Tartarstan Bashkirs in Bashkortostan Main Ethnic Republics in Russia These Republics Have Their Own Autonomy (not independence) And Live At Peace With Russia. However, “Threats” Persist From The Muslim South
Ethnic Conflict and War in Chechnya • Human rights abuses by Russian Soldiers • Gozny flattened in 2000 • Deported Chechens • Labeled “anti-terrorist operation” • Backlash by Chechen rebels using terrorist tactics against Russian cities http://www.hrvc.net/main.htm
Female Suicide Terrorist • Chechen females have participated in many of the terrorist bombing • within Russia. The Russian public has named these woman • “Black Widows” due to the death and destruction they have wrought • on Russian civilians. These woman themselves are said to have lost everything in the Chechen war. With their husbands and male family members dead, some of these women extremists have taken vengeance for their family.
Moscow Theater The Destruction October 2002 40 armed terrorist, 18 of which were woman took 900 people hostage in Moscow Theater Russian Special Forces pumped a narcotic gas in the theater. After the gas was used they raided the theater…….
The gas killed 129 hostages. The rebels who were passed out due to the gas were shoot In the head because of the danger of explosives strapped to them. Others were killed or seized in a shootout.
Rock Festival Bombing July 2003 Two Female Suicide Bombers kill 16 people at a rock festival near Moscow Two Airplane Crashes August 25 2004 90 people dead after terrorist bombs crashed two airplanes. Two female Chechen passengers believed to have brought explosives onboard.
Moscow Metro Attack August 31 2004 A female Suicide Bomber Kills Ten People Russian Reaction to Terrorism • Chechnya always Blamed for Bombings • Apartment bombings in1999were controversial; was it the Chechens • or the Russian intelligence operators caught planting the bombs? • Retaliatory strikes on Chechnya
Putin wants to ‘Liquidate all Terrorist’ • US War on Islamic Terrorists after 9/11
Russia NO Longer Posses a Threat to Eastern Europe Which NATO Could Counterbalance • Russia Cannot Produce a Military Treat Since Cold War BBC News World: Europe“Russia's army: Demoralized and ill-equipped” Low morale taking its toll on the armed forces • Russia’s Military is in Debt, Demoralized, and Overstretched • Due to Conflict in Chechnya and Tajikistan
Deployment of NATO Troops on Russian Borders only Antagonizes Russia. Ivanov Questions NATO's Air Patrols ST. PETERSBURG -- Defense Minister Sergei Ivanov on Saturday criticized NATO's expansion into three former Soviet states on the Baltic Sea and warned that NATO warplanes flying patrols over those countries create a risk of accidental incidents. The Moscow Times.com Monday, August 16, 2004. Page 1.
Stationing NATO Troops Near the Russian Border Brings into Question If NATO is Positioning itself Against Russia Instead of Maintaining Internal Stability in the Bordering Republics. Protest against NATO Bombing In Serbia, 1999 Protest against war in Iraq, 2003 This Could Obstruct Democratic Development and Aid in Arousing Russian Nationalism?
Weakened Military + Antagonism + Rise of Nationalism = Increased Threat of Nuclear Conflict in Europe Both the Drained Military Strength and Antagonism Over Deployment of NATO Troops Near Its Borders Could Necessitate Russia to Depend on Its Stockpile of Nuclear Weapons
BBC News Thursday, April 29, 1999 Published at 15:16 GMT 16:16 UK “Russia re-affirms nuclear commitment” • Did not Sign START II Treaty in 1999 Did sign Moscow Treaty in 2002 Nuclear Complex’s of Russia
Solution to the NATO Threat Make Russia a Member of NATO Remove the outdated divisions of The Cold War By Expanding NATO • Already the NATO-Russian Pact 1997
Putin Clamps Down on Democracy • Centralized Power • Inside Kremlin • Putin to Appoint • rather than allow • elections of • Governors • “Bolster trends toward limits on civil society” and “A greater assertiveness“ CIA
Taken strides to appropriate • businesses • Yukos, Russia's main oil entity • is taken over by the state using • corruption as an excuse • Putin Angry with U.S. “Interference • in Ukrainian Election” • This Year, Russia and China are • joining in unprecedented joint • military exercises. CAPITALISM TO AUTHORITARIANISM
Broad backlash to Putin reforms “The Russian president is losing popular support over his pension reforms and 'managed democracy” The Christian Science Monitor • Reforms Replaced • Soviet era benefits • Law replaces transportation and some medical benefits for pensioners with cash payments
Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice Visits Russia April 20th 2005 • Issues on the Table • Centralized Power • Limits to Independent Broadcast Media • Third Term For Putin • Eye of World Watching Yukos Case
Social Issues Piracy U.S. Ambassador to Russia, Alexander Vershbow’s View on Piracy in Russia • Piracy involving music, films and software products • cripple progress in cultural and scientific areas • Artist cannot sell music • In order to attract high tech foreign • investment, and to protect musicians • at home the government must • institute laws protecting intellectual • property rights
Music Is T.A.T.O. too Provocative for Russian’s ? Or is Western Influences?
Communism to Capitalpopculturism
Population • Growth Rate: • (2004 est.) -0.45% • (2005 est.) -0.37% • Birth Rate: • (2004 est.) 9.63 births/1000 • 206th in the world • (2005 est.) 9.8 births/1000 • still 206th in the world • Death Rate: • (2004 est.) 15.17 deaths/1000 • 29th in the world • (2005 est.) 14.52 deaths/1000 • 33rd in the world! • CIA World Fact Book
What do these population statistics mean ? • Low fertility rate: • (2004 est.)1.26 children born/woman 218th • in the world • (2005 est.)1.27 children born/woman, still • 218th in world • High death rate: • (2004 & 2005 est.) Life expectancy at birth • only 67 years • CIA World Fact Book
Population Cont. • Also contributing factors • Rural Famines: • 1920s and 30s • Stalin’s Collectivization • War: • Millions lost in World War II (80% of Allied Deaths) • Abortion: • Highest abortion rate in the world • 2 abortions to every 1 live birth Health Minister Yurii Sevchenko: "Only about 20 percent of the population is healthy,"
Population Cont. • Health problems: • Air and water pollution • Environmental hazards • Alcoholism (esp. males) • AIDS (huge rise in growth rate) • Drugs
Sources • Chechen terrorist in Russia “Chechen Based Terrorist,” Council on Foreign Relations, 2004 http://cfrterrorism.org/groups/chechens.html (Date last accessed 4/14/05). “Chechen Terrorist Actions,” Public Opinion Foundation Database, 2003 http://bd.english.fom.ru/cat/societas/problem_soc/terrorism_criminality/act_terrorism (Date last accessed 4/14/05). Splidsboel-Hansen, Flemming. “The Official Russian Concept of Contemporary Central Asian Islam: The Security Dimension.” Europe-Asian Studies 49, no. 8 (1997) : 1501-1517 • Russian Reaction to Chechen terrorist “Russian Siege Footage: Your reaction,” BBC News, 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/talking_point/3624494.stm (Date last accessed 4/14/05). Cornell, Svante E. “International Reaction to Massive Human Rights Violations: The Case of Chechnya.” Europe-Asia Studies 51, no. 2 (1999) : 85-100 • NATO/Russian Relations Blagov, Sergei. “Russia Views N.A.T.O Expansion as Strategic Threat,” PINR, 2004 http://www.pinr.com/report.php?ac=view_report&report_id=166&language_id=1 (Date last accessed 4/15/05). McCalla, Robert B. “NATO’s Persistence after the Cold War.” International Organization 50, no. 3 (1996) : 445-475
Lovetsky, Dmitry. “Broad backlash to Putin reforms,” The Christian Science Monitor, 2005 http://www.csmonitor.com/2005/0119/p01s03-woeu.html (Date last accessed 4/12/05). “Travel to Europe,” (sic, Rice’s Russian and Europe trip) U.S. Department of State, 2005 http://www.state.gov/secretary/trvl/44482.htm(Date last accessed 4/22/05). Herd, Graeme P. “Russia and the Politics of Putinism.” Journal of Peace Research 38,no. 1 (2001) : 107-112 • Social Issues “Vershbow Urges Russia to Enforce Intellectual Property Rights,” International Information Programs, 2003 http://usinfo.state.gov/ei/Archive/2004/Jan/08- 244490.html (Date last accessed 4/12/05). Population statistics (growth, birth, death, and fertility rate) derived from CIA World Fact Book http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/rs.html Rural famines, war, and abortion statistics derived from: “Country Studies,” Library of Congress, 1996 http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/rutoc.html (Date last accessed 4/30/05). “Only 20 percent of Russians Healthy,” CDI Russian Weekly, 2003 http://www.cdi.org/russia/271-21.cfm (Date last accessed 4/23/05). • Photos Photos taken from google.com, yahoo.com, and msn.com image sites. Examples of headings used to find images were “Russia,” “terrorism in Russia,” “NATO expansion,” etc. I also copied pictures from news articles pertinent to issues in my presentation.