Abstract • Objectives • Assisting preschoolers’ development of physical, social and cognitive abilities through play and hands-on experience. • Method • Researched various sources for approaches of educating preschoolers effectively.
Reasons for Preschool • Although the objectives and methods of preschool education vary, the general intention of preschool is to ease the transition from home to elementary school. Preschool helps a child expand their cognitive, social and gross motor skills resulting in a more successful school experience.
Purpose • My specific design attempts to concentrate on the overall developmental needs of preschoolers. • I expected this project to be less complicated than it actually was. Even though the lessons for preschoolers are simple, there is a vast amount of important information that shouldn’t be overlooked.
Piaget’s 3 Systems of Play • He identified three systems of play that outline the evolution of children’s play that occur in the first seven years of life. • Practice play occurs within the first 18 months of life. The characteristics of this are repetition of well established sequences of actions and manipulations for the pleasure of mastering the motor skills. • Symbolic play occurs around the second year of life. The characteristics of this are performing a familiar behavior such as, sleeping, eating…and shifts from self to other references. • Play with rules occurs from 4 to 7 years of age. This type of play involves games with rules based on temporary agreement. • Symbolic play and Play with rules are practiced by children of preschool age.
How Preschoolers Learn… • Preschoolers learn through play and experience. They are very hands-on. • They can talk about things that happened and make up stories. They listen attentively to stories and retell stories themselves. They enjoy books that tell about real things as well as make-believe. They may revert to toddler behavior when feeling upset or shy. • They can learn colors, shapes, numbers and the alphabet. They are beginning to identify different animals, people, and objects.
How Preschoolers are Assessed • Preschoolers are assessed based on a variety of categories: • Social Development • Work/Play Habits • Physical Development • Small Muscle • Large Muscle • Personal Development
How Preschoolers are Assessed • Development in Art, Music, and Math • Language Development • Verbal • Print and Book awareness • Phonemic awareness • Cognitive
Learning Environment • Knowledge and understanding are constructed through social interactions. Classrooms are social places wherein teachers and children negotiate the curriculum together. The aim is to construct a teaching and learning environment in which children and teachers are given opportunities to make decisions, pursue authentic questions and concerns, connect what is known to the unknown, and be successful as they explore, test ideas, and discover through play, informal learning activities, and projects. Guided participation in the activities of children is the primary role of the teacher, and play and the expression of ideas through interactions with adults, peers, and the environment are the primary business of children.
Physical Layout Science and Math Music Group Activity Time Out Corner Creative Art Bathroom
Curriculum • The AM and PM class curriculums would be the same. Many lesson plans have themes, I have chosen a theme for my own lesson plan. • The curriculum I’ve selected includes: • Arrival/Table Toys • Story Time (Together) • Creative Art • Music • Science and Math • Fun Activity (Together) • The theme for my example is “Pets”. These three would be station activities, in which, the children would break up into smaller groups and periodically switch stations.
Arrival/Table Toys • As the children are arriving, they could play with some table toys and greet their classmates. • This activity aids in the development of the child’s social skills as well as motor skills because the children are interacting with each other and using their hands to operate the toys. Story Time • After everyone arrives, we would gather round for story time. I would choose a preschool appropriate book, with many colorful pictures, to read to the children. • Ex. Clifford the Big Red Dog. This activity is helpful to the child’s cognitive abilities because it shows the child how words are pronounced. It develops the child’s vocabulary as well as stimulating the child’s imagination.
Creative Art • This would be one of the station activities. I would bring supplies like play dough, crayons, finger-paint and other craft materials. • Ex. Coloring pages of pets. This stimulates creativity as well as motor skills because the children would be working with their hands and using their imagination. This is also a fun way to learn about textures. Music • This would also be one of the station activities. At this station, there would be different instruments for the children to play. They could focus on different things like loud, soft, low, or high sounds. • Ex. Tamborine, the triangle, wood block, cowbell, etc…This activity would assist in the development of motor skills because the child would learn to manipulate the instrument to make sounds.
Science and Math • This station activity would include observation, experimentation and counting. • Ex. Showing pictures of many different kinds of pets and showing where they live. This activity would support cognitive development because the child would learn to identify these objects. Fun Activity • This activity would involve the whole class. This activity would be a game the class could play before dismissal. • Ex. Where’s the Bone –All the children are sitting in circle. One stands in the corner and counts to ten doggy biscuits Meanwhile one of the children in the circle is given a bone to sit on. . All the children chant: Doggie, Doggie where's your bone Somebody stole it from your home. Guess who? Then the child has three guesses of which child it is. Then the cycle continues until everyone has had a turn. This activity would develop social skills because the class would interact with each other.
Discipline Policies • The discipline policies for most preschools does not include corporal punishment. The punishment must be age appropriate and constructive. These are steps can take to discipline misbehaving children. • define and state operationally each behavior to be changed. • obtain a baseline or operant level of the behavior. • arrange the learning or treatment situation so that the desirable behavior would occur. • identify potential reinforcers. • shape and reinforce the desired behavior • maintain records of the reinforced behavior to determine whether response strength or frequency had increased.
Sources • Martin, Alex. “Data Sheet for Brigance Preschool Screen.” Wichita Falls Independent School District. • Almy, Nicolopoulou, Ervin-Tripp, Scales. Play and the Social Context of Development in Early Care and Education. Teachers College Press. New York. 1991. February 2007. • Preschool Lesson Plans and Kindergarten Themes for Daycare, Kindergarten, HomeSchool or Home Activities. 2006. FunLessonPlans.com. February 2007. http://funlessonplans.com/. • Preschool Education. 1997. February 2007. http://preschooleducation.com/. • Napoli, Richard A. “A Plan to Establish Consistency in Classroom Management Procedures with Preschool Children”. 1987. February 2007.