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API Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System Presentation for: IMEAC San Antonio, Texas April 2001 PowerPoint Presentation
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API Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System Presentation for: IMEAC San Antonio, Texas April 2001

API Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System Presentation for: IMEAC San Antonio, Texas April 2001

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API Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System Presentation for: IMEAC San Antonio, Texas April 2001

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  1. API Engine Oil Licensingand Certification System Presentation for: IMEAC San Antonio, Texas April 2001

  2. R.C. (Dick) Clark 1220 L St NW Washington, DC 20005 Phone 1 202 682 8182 Fax 1 202 682 8051 e-mail clarkd@api.org

  3. Presentation Outline History of Engine Oils Benefits of Licensing “S” Categories & “C” Categories Summary

  4. API’s Engine Oil Program • Voluntary program • Agreement between API and U.S. automobile manufacturers • Licenses the use of API Marks • Performance requirements cooperatively established

  5. API’s Engine Oil Program • Licensing • Based on performance • Composition not a requirement • Data filed by Licensees • related to performance

  6. History of Engine Oil Licensing Pre 1947: Oils classified by SAE J300 viscosity grade only 1947: API defined three categories Regular Straight mineral oil Premium Mineral oil with oxidation inhibitors Heavy Duty Mineral oil with oxidation inhibitors and detergent/dispersants 1952: API defined categories for gasoline and diesel ML, MM, MS for gasoline engines DG, DM, DS for diesel engines

  7. Licensing History Continued 1960: API added Sequence Testing to requirements Still no precise definitions of performance Company specifications and Mil specifications used 1970: API, ASTM, SAE developed present classification system S and C categories introduced 1993: EOLCS launched CMA Code of Practice instituted Today’s licensing program started

  8. Licensed Marks API Certification Mark “Starburst” API Service Symbol “Donut”

  9. Engine Oil Program’s Value For government • Stakeholders provide cost-effective, self-regulatory program • Audit program encourages careful quality control and provides demonstration of oil quality • Performance requirements complement government environmental initiatives and standards • Approved oils help to conserve energy

  10. Engine Oil Program’s Value For consumers • Identifies products that satisfy auto manufacturer recommendations • Provides user-friendly product information and recognizable symbols • Provides a choice of quality products from which consumers may choose • Helps conserve energy • Offers rigorous monitoring of products in market

  11. How Are Consumers Encouraged to Look for API Marks ? • Vehicle operator’s & maintenance manuals • Oil marketing advertisements • API brochures, website, and literature • Media sources (Consumer Reports,OEM Off-Highway,Equipment World)

  12. How Are Engine Oil Performance Standards Created in U.S? Engine Builders Define the Need Oil Industry(API) Licenses Standards New Engine Oil Performance Standard Technical Societies (ASTM & SAE) Develop Standards Additive Industry (CMA) Provides Technology

  13. Passenger Car Categories Category Years AKA Major Distinctions SA Pre 1930 ML SB 1930–1963 MM SC 1964–1967 MS SD 1968–1971 SE 1972–1979 SF 1980–1988 SG 1989–1993 Fuel economy and phos limits SH 1994–1996 CMA Code & EOLCS SJ 1996 Lower phos, tighter volatility, fuel economy SL 2001 New wear & oxidation tests, tighter volatility, improved fuel economy

  14. Current API Passenger Car Engine Oil Categories • API GF-2: Designed for improved fuel economy, improved emissions system durability, and increased performance over GF-1 • API SJ: Designed for improved emissions system durability and increased performance over API SH • Energy Conserving: Denotes engine oils that meet fuel economy performance requirements

  15. Requirements for API Energy Conserving • API SJ • Sequence VIA engine test for fuel economy

  16. GF-3/SL The Next Category • Performance enhancements targeted toward a longer category lifespan: • Improved fuel economy and its retention • Improved emissions system protection • Improved high temperature deposits and foaming control and general increased “robustness” • Lower oil consumption

  17. GF-3 Engine Tests • Ball Rust Test engine rusting • Sequence IIIF oil thickening, wear, and high temperature piston deposits (represents ~7,500 mile oil drain) • Sequence IVA valve train wear • Sequence VG low temperature sludge and varnish • Sequence VIB fuel economy (new and used oil) (4,000 to 6,000 miles of use) • Sequence VIII bearing corrosion (unleaded fuel) • TEOST MHT high temperature deposits

  18. More Demanding GF-3Bench Tests • Tighter volatility limits by evaporation loss and simulated distillation • Tighter high temperature foaming limits • 50% max flow reduction on modifiedGM EOFT

  19. Heavy Duty Categories Category Years AKA Major Distinctions CA Pre 1961 DG CB 1949–1960 DM CC 1961–1990 DM CD 1955–1990 DS CE 1987–1995 CD-II 1987–1995 CF-4 1990 High-speed, 4-stroke CF-2 1994 CMA Code & EOLCS; severe-duty, 2-stroke CF 1994 Off-highway, higher sulfur fuels CG-4 1995 On-highway, high-speed; 1994 emissions CH-4 1998 On-highway, high-speed; 1998 emissions PC-9 2002 On-highway, high-speed; 2004 emissions

  20. API CF 1994 Off-road, indirect-injected engines including those using fuel with over 0.5% sulfur. • Caterpillar 1M-PC piston deposits • L-38 bearing corrosion

  21. API CF-2 1994 Severe-duty, 2-stroke engines • Caterpillar 1M-PC piston deposits • Detroit Diesel 6V 92TA liner scuffing, port plugging, ring distress • L-38 bearing corrosion

  22. API CF-4 1990 High-speed, 4-stroke, naturally aspirated and turbo-charged engines • Caterpillar 1K piston deposits, oil consumption • L-38 bearing corrosion • Mack T-6 ring wear, deposits • Mack T-7 viscosity increase • Cummins NTC-400 oil consumption, piston deposits • Bench Tests Cummins corrosion bench test (bearing)

  23. API CG-4 1995 High-speed, 4-stroke engines Used in highway/off-road applications, Meets 1994 U.S. emissions standards • Caterpillar 1N piston deposits, oil consumption • Mack T-8 viscosity increase due to soot (3.8%) • L-38 bearing corrosion • Sequence IIIE oil oxidation • GM 6.5 liter roller follower wear • Navistar HEUI oil aeration • Bench Tests D892 foaming & CCBT corrosion

  24. API CH-4 1998 High-speed, 4-stroke engines Meets 1998 U.S. emissions standards • Caterpillar 1K 1990 piston deposits, oil consumption • Caterpillar 1P 1994 piston deposits, oil consumption • Mack T-8E viscosity increase due to soot (4.8%) • Mack T-9 ring liner and bearing wear • Sequence IIIE oil oxidation • Cummins M-11 valve train wear, filterability, sludge • GM 6.5 Liter roller follower wear • Navistar HEUI oil aeration • Bench Tests D892 foaming, CCBT corrosion, D2945 shear stability, D5800 volatility

  25. API Heavy-Duty Categories Drivers for change • New engine designs to meet environmental regulations • Globalization of engine technology • Diverse applications

  26. US Government Emissions Regulations • 1994 API CG-4 • 1998 API CH-4 • 2002 PC-9 • 200X? PC-X? • For use with ultra-low-sulfur fuels

  27. US Federal Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions Standards

  28. PC-9 Driving Force • New emissions targets must be met by October 1, 2002 • Engine builders are using Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) to achieve goal within time frame

  29. API PC-9 Challenges • EGR will add combustion by-products back into engine • Oil sump temperatures expected to rise 40–60ºF • Engine builders have concerns about elastomer compatibility

  30. How Does API Ensure That Licensed Products Meet Standards? After-Market Audit Program (AMAP) • Purchases samples of licensed products from marketplace • Tests samples to verify that they conform to originally licensed formulations & meet requirements • Requires corrective action in thecase of non-complying results

  31. Summary • API and its “Quality” marks 80+ years • EOLCS • Provides a standard of reference for engine oil performance. • Worldwide participation • Only engine oil certification system with enforcement