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Feeding Frenzy Report

Feeding Frenzy Report. Check spelling!!!!!!!!!!!! 3 rd person Remember to include your sources, for definitions, ideas, etc. Introduction: Background: competition, predation, resource partitioning, define terms used Rationale for doing the study: Why is this important, purpose

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Feeding Frenzy Report

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  1. Feeding Frenzy Report • Check spelling!!!!!!!!!!!! • 3rd person • Remember to include your sources, for definitions, ideas, etc. • Introduction: • Background: competition, predation, resource partitioning, define terms used • Rationale for doing the study: Why is this important, purpose • Guide reader to the hypothesis: Why do you expect to find what you do • Explain what the tools represent, feeding types, whether they are advanced or not • Hypotheses: • Slotted spoon would do the best • Trial 1 would have the most survivors, would do the best, because no resource limitation, no predation • Methods: how • Remember, we only did 2 trials, do not simply copy the handout verbatim • Include point scale for survival, food points (big vs. small), times (5 min), utensils

  2. Feeding Frenzy Cont. • Results: • Give averages for the tables • Make 2 graphs • Stacked bar chart of % survivors and % deaths • Bar chart of 4 different tools used and average points per tool • Give actual values for trends mentioned • You need to set the stage for your discussion • i.e., state which tool had the highest points, which the lowest, which trial had the most survivors. • Figure legend below figure, table title above

  3. Figure legend exampleFigure=map or chart of data with x and y coordinates Figure legend Refer to Figure in text

  4. Table title example: Table=list of numbers

  5. Discussion • Revisit hypotheses-how did we do • Answer the questions how and why • No new data should be presented here but you can refer back to figures in the results section

  6. Conclusions- improvements only • What about the experiment would you change • Write in 3rd person

  7. How much of the ocean has been explored? • World’s ocean floor = 2 moons plus 2 mars sized planets • 80 % of life on earth found under the ocean surface • Oceans contain 99% of the living space on the planet. • Less than 10% of that space has been explored by humans. • Deep Sea = 85% of the area and 90% of the volume • Poorly mapped • 5 % mapped as precisely as moon’s surface

  8. Fig. 16.1

  9. Deep Sea • Region below epipelagic zone • Major portion of global biosphere • Life strongly influenced by environmental conditions • Conditions • Temperature • Cold – Typically -1 to 4 oC • Pressure • Increases by 1 atmosphere (14.7 psi) every 10 m • Average depth of oceans – 3800 m = 5600 psi • Affects biological molecules – Membranes, enzymes • Light • Decreases with depth • Sunlight present in mesopelagic zone; absent below 1000 m • Affects development of eyes • Food • Scarce • Unpredictable in space and time • Oxygen • Low in some areas but generally not limiting

  10. Deepest depth discovered • Marinas Trench: 36161 ft = 6.8 miles • Deeper that the highest mountain peak of Mount Everest (29,035 ft) • Explored by John Walsh and Jacques Piccard, 1960 (35,800 ft) • Used the bathyscape called Trieste • 3 inch port cracked under pressure, but they survived • Pressure here is more than 11,318 tons/sq m= one person trying to support 50 jumbo jets. • Only revisited by ROV since • More people have landed on the moon than have been to deepest inner space

  11. Fig. 16.1

  12. Deep Sea Mesopelagic (Midwater) • Feeding • Availability of food declines rapidly with depth • Only 20% of surface primary production reaches mesopelagic zone • More mesopelagic organisms beneath productive waters vs. areas with low primary production • Small body size (fishes) • Large mouth with hinged, extendable jaws (fishes) • Needle-like teeth (fishes) • Broad diet

  13. Fig. 16.8

  14. Deep Sea Mesopelagic (Midwater)-cont. • Diel vertical migration (DVM) • Some species migrate vertically on a diel basis • Usually at depth during day; near surface at night • Reverse migration also occurs • Response to changes in light intensity • Possible reasons for DVM • Food more abundant in surface waters • Visual predators less abundant in deep water • Colder deep water facilitates more efficient use of food • Consequences • Biological pump – Transport of organic matter from surface to deep water

  15. Physiological differences between migrators and non-migrators Fig. 16.11

  16. Deep Sea Mesopelagic (Midwater)-cont. • Vision • Large, sensitive eyes • Some squids have one large eye, one small eye • Large eye directed upward • Some fishes have tubular eyes • Enhance light gathering power in one direction • Reduced visual acuity in other directions • Sensitivity to narrow range of wavelengths (blue-green)

  17. Deep Sea Mesopelagic (Midwater)-cont. • Coloration/Body Shape • Body often laterally compressed • Reduces size of silhouette when viewed from below • Colors • Transparent – Difficult to see • Silver – Reflects incident light • Black – Deeper in mesopelagic • Red – Appears gray/black

  18. Deep Sea Mesopelagic (Midwater)-cont. • Bioluminescence-same light as from fireflies • Counterillumination – Breaks up silhouette • Species recognition – photophore locations differ by sex • Predator avoidance – Bioluminescent ink, etc. • Attract prey – Glowing lure • Detect prey – Subocular red photophore

  19. Deep Sea Bathyal/Abyssal/Hadal • Coloration/Body Shape • Fishes - Black or beige • Crustaceans - Red • Bioluminescence common • Attracting prey • Intraspecific communication • Not used for counterillumination (Why not?) • Eyes typically very small (exceptions exist) • Watery/flabby muscle (no sprinters down here)

  20. Fig. 16.21

  21. Less developed nervous and circulatory systems Fig. 16.22

  22. Deep Sea • Bathyal/Abyssal/Hadal • Food availability • Only 5% of primary production reaches bathyal zone • Vertical migration very uncommon • Animals usually small (exceptions exist) • Animals mostly adapted for efficient energy usage • Sluggish and sedentary behavior • Flabby, watery muscles • Weak, poorly calcified skeletons • No scales • Large mouths • Flexible stomachs

  23. Fig. 16.23

  24. Deep Sea- Benthos Food availability • Food accumulates at deep sea floor • More available than in water column • Still unpredictable in space and time • Seasonally variable (Why?) • Suspension feeders less common than deposit feeders in sediments (Why?) • Epifauna usually dominated by • Ophiuroids-Brittle stars = Phylum? • Holothuroids • Echinoids • Infauna usually dominated by • Nematodes • Polychaetes • Crustaceans • Bivalves

  25. Deep Sea Benthos • Fishes • Roving/Cruising predators • May have large eyes • Well developed muscles • Active swimmers • May travel thousands of km • Sit and wait predators • Usually have small eyes • Muscles contain more water than cruisers • Poor swimmers • Tend to stay in one area

  26. Fig. 16.27

  27. Hydrothermal vents – like hot springs at Yellowstone • 1970’s: geologists predicted their existence at mid-ocean spreading ridges • 1977: ecological communities discovered, 2.5 km (1.55 miles) • Chemosynthesis: Base of food chain is bacteria, use hydrogen sulfide as energy, instead of sunlight • 90% of all volcanic activity occurs in the oceans. • Vents occur where new crust is formed, spreading ridges • Water percolates through cracks, heated by magma, explosively rises through cracks

  28. Pulsed organic food falls-dead whales • Initial colonists • Mobile scavengers • Skeletonize whale quickly • Secondary successors • Sedentary and sessile forms • Some with endosymbiotic bacteria-use bone lipid as energy source Bone devouring Osedax spp. Vesicomya gigas with endosymbionts. http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/oceanography/faculty/csmith/index.html A. Baco

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