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Digital Prepress

7. Digital Prepress. Learning Objectives. Identify different computer platforms. Explain the characteristics of different types of storage devices. Differentiate between various output devices. Explain the processes used in text and graphics preparation.

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Digital Prepress

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  1. 7 Digital Prepress

  2. Learning Objectives • Identify different computer platforms. • Explain the characteristics of different types of storage devices. • Differentiate between various output devices. • Explain the processes used in text and graphics preparation. • Summarize the features of page composition programs.

  3. Learning Objectives • Identify the techniques used in creating digital design files. • Explain the proofreading process. • Explain the preflighting process. • Compare types of production proofs. • Explain digital prepress workflow.

  4. Digital Basics • Digital prepress system • Computer has three main functions • Binary system is used • Bits • Bytes

  5. Computer Platforms • Different platforms for different computer systems • Hardware operates various programs • Different types of software are used in digital prepress process • Cross-platform file formats may make process more efficient

  6. Computer Platforms • Macintosh® • Designed around graphical user interface (GUI) concept • Personal computers (PCs) • Originally command-based operating system • UNIX® • Open-source system upon which other platforms may be based

  7. Memory Types • Random-access memory (RAM) • Hard drive • Capacities are measured in megabytes or gigabytes • Almost unlimited storage capacity is available with RAID

  8. Memory Types • CD and DVD drives • “Read-only” and rewritable discs • CD capacity from 670 MB to more than 800 MB • DVD capacity from 4.7 GB to 8.75 GB • Flash memory cards • Fast access and retrieval speeds • High storage capacity

  9. Input Devices • Keyboard • Mouse • Modem • Scanner • Voice recognition system

  10. Output Devices • Monitors • Printers • Imagesetter and computer-to-plate devices • Page Description Languages (PDLs)

  11. Monitors • WYSIWYG display • Resolution and dot pitch • Monitors use additive color formation • Images print in subtractive color formation • Color management systems (CMS)provides WYSIWYP display

  12. Printers • Ink-jet printers • Project tiny droplets of ink onto paper • Make color proofs of graphics and page proofs (Epson America, Inc.)

  13. Printers • Laser printers • Print enginescreate bitmapped images • Toner is fused onto paper

  14. Imagesetter and Computer-to-Plate Devices • Used for high-resolution images output for commercial printing • Raster image processor (RIP)converts page elements to bitmapped images • High-resolution text and graphics may be output onto paper, plates, or to a digital printing press

  15. Page Description Languages • Identify all elements to be put on pages • May be interpreted by different types of software programs • Interpreters • Receive PDL descriptions • Translate them into patterns of dots or pixels

  16. Preparing Content • Text preparation • Graphics preparation

  17. Text Preparation • Text must be electronic • Word processing program is used for editing • Proofing tools increase typesetting efficiency • Text may be coded for special formatting in page composition programs

  18. Graphics Preparation • Create and save graphic images • Paint programs • Draw programs • Digital photography • Electronic scanning • Graphics editing • Full-featured image editor

  19. Bitmapped Images • Aliasing may be reduced by: • Antialiasing • Smoothing • Antialiasing may make images fuzzier • Autotracing converts bitmapped images into vector images

  20. Vector Images • Bezier curves • Advantages of vector images: • Less image degradation • More flexible than bitmapped images • Better for high-resolution output

  21. Digital Page Composition • Composition software features • Master pages and templates • Importing text • Importing graphics • Font formats and management

  22. Composition Software Features

  23. Composition Software Features • Pasteboard • Page grid • Drop-down menus • Context-sensitive menus • Dialog boxes • Palettes • Tool palette

  24. Master Pages and Templates • Different attributes can be set up as types of master pages • Templates incorporate different master pages and other formatting

  25. Importing Text • Text usually comes from a word processing program • Text filters may be used for formatting • Style sheets • Paragraph style sheets • Character style sheets

  26. Importing Graphics • Bitmapped images and vector images may be imported • Digital images can be manipulated • Drag-and-drop manipulation • Color separations, producing separation plates

  27. Font Formats and Management • Font utility software • WYSIWYG representations • Easier activation of font sets • Vector fonts and PostScript vector image fonts

  28. Font Formats and Management • PostScript Type 1 fonts • Characters are stored as language programs • Two component files • Suitcase file • PostScript printer typeface file • Font packages may include various weights and widths

  29. Font Formats and Management • TrueType fonts • No specific sizes • Combine screen fonts and printer typeface into one file • May need to use a substitute PostScript font if used with a PostScript output device

  30. Font Formats and Management • Multiple master fonts • Allow variations to be created from a base design • Use base fonts that have one or more instances of that font • Include one or more design axes for more variations

  31. Font Formats and Management • Organize fonts with filing system • Easier to send associated fonts • Easier to reconstruct document if problems occur • Better way to avoid mixing fonts

  32. Font Formats and Management • Font report • Way of verifying document fonts • Page composition software may compile document reports • Preflighting fonts • Helps avoid problems when documents are sent to printers • Alerts when fonts are missing

  33. Creating Digital Image andDesign Files • File formats • File names • File compression

  34. File Formats • Tagged image file format (TIFF) • Raster graphic file • Tagged image file format for image technology (TIFF/IT-P1) • Device-dependent format • Encapsulated PostScript • Can be used in open press interface (OPI) systems

  35. File Formats • Windows® Metafile (WMF) and PICT • Graphics files for different platforms • Desktop color separations (DCS 1.0 and DCS 2.0) • File that has six plates and a master image • Graphics interchange format (GIF) • Supports raster images up to 256 colors

  36. File Formats • Portable document format (PDF) • Standard for electronic document distribution • Universal file format that preserves all aspects of native files • Simple, compact vector files • Page-independent

  37. File Names • Helps keep work organized • Must be consistent • May be subject to conventions of computer platforms or programs • Revised files should use different names

  38. File Compression • Lossless compression algorithms • Can reduce file size by about 50% • Lossless compression methods: • PKZIP • Huffman method • LZW • RLE

  39. File Compression • Lossy compression algorithms • Improved speed of transfer with loss of data • Lossy compression methods: • DPCM • JPEG • Selective compression

  40. JPEG File Format • Popular standard for images used on Internet • Extreme compression capacity • Ability to support 24-bit color • Major goal is to maintain appearance of image rather than data contained in original • Functions best for color and grayscale, continuous-tone images

  41. Proofreading • Proofs are typically printouts from laser printer • Proofreader’s responsibilities • Check spelling and hyphenations • Verify consistent style • Check for omitted or repeated copy • Use proofreader’s marks to mark up copy

  42. Proofreader’s Marks

  43. Proofreading Methods • Comparison proofing • Checks for obvious errors or changes • Proofed next to manuscript • Must compare proof with copy • Two-person proofing • Reader and copyholder • Proofreaders read to each other

  44. Spell Check Programs • Incorporated into word processing programs • Compares words in documents with those in program’s dictionary • Copy must still be reviewed by proofreaders

  45. Preflighting • Orderly review of files to identify items that could cause problems at output or prepress stages • Common problems • Fonts and trapping missing or incorrect • Incorrect color or file format • Graphics missing or not linked • No laser proofs supplied

  46. Production Proofs • Soft proofs • May be delivered via e-mail or accessed on Internet • Review takes significantly shorter time • Digital proofs • Laser proofs and ink-jet proofs • Ink-jet proofs are inexpensive but do not show moiré patterns

  47. Digital Prepress Workflow • PDF workflow • PDF file is used to create plates or film • Allows incorporation of extended job ticket

  48. Digital Prepress Workflow • Job Definition Format (JDF) • Based on XML • Similar to embedded electronic job tickets • Information and instructions in JDF files may be manually changed

  49. Soft Proofs • Becoming more widely used than digital proofs • Reduce use of paper in multiple rounds of checking proofs • No transportation is involved in transmitting because they are sent over Internet • Quality of soft proofs can be questionable

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