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HKIN 103 PowerPoint Presentation

HKIN 103

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HKIN 103

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  1. HKIN 103 Principles of Physical Activity And Exercise prescription

  2. GETTING STARTED A little Exercise Physiology

  3. Muscle Architecture • Muscle body • Fasciculus • Muscle fibre • Myofibrils

  4. Muscle Architecture • Muscle body • Fasciculus • Muscle fibre • Myofibrils

  5. Muscle Architecture • Muscle body • Fasciculus • Muscle fibre • Myofibrils • Sarcomere

  6. Muscle Architecture-myofibrilar proteins • Myosin (large) • Actin (smaller)

  7. Muscle Architecture-myofibrilar proteins • Myosin (large) • Actin (smaller)

  8. Muscle Architecture-myofibrilar proteins • Myosin (large) • Actin (smaller)

  9. Muscle Architecture • Sarcomere • Z-Lines • Myosin filament • Actin filament

  10. Muscular Contraction • Sliding filament theory • Calcium is released • Actin slides over the myosin • (Benjamin-Cummings)

  11. Muscle Contraction • A muscle cell • Mitochondria • organelles

  12. Bioenergetics: phosphorylation of ADP to ATP

  13. Bioenergetics • Movement uses PCr to initiate. • Defers to Aerobic metabolism, but… • Switches to the metabolic system that will provide ATP as required. • Therefore the bioenergetic system that predominates in the supply of ATP will be decided by the intensity of exercise.

  14. GETTING STARTED The PRINCIPLES of Physiologic Adaptation

  15. The Principles • # 1 The principle of ‘Overload’ • Muscles must work against a load that is greater than normal to improve. • The cardiovascular system must be overloaded to improve. • # 2 The Principle of ‘Progression’ • Follow a plan • The plan should follow common sense: Too hard, too fast - too bad!!

  16. The Principles • # 3 Principle of ‘Specificity’ • To gain benefit, you must overload progressively for that benefit. • Strength,power,endurance, throwing, kicking, jumping, high speed, low speed. Train for what you need! • # 4 The Principle of ‘Reversibility’ • If you don’t use, you’ll lose it

  17. The Principles • # 5 The Principle of ‘Diminishing Returns’ • The fitter/stronger you get, the harder it is to get fitter/stronger. • # 6 The F.I.T. Principles • Frequency • Intensity • Time (duration)

  18. Physical Activity Target Zone

  19. F.I.T.T. Programming • F. = Frequency: number of times per week • I. = Intensity: the level of intensity one works out at, expressed as a % of maximum. • T = Time: duration of exercise bout usually expressed as minutes/sets. • T. = Type of exercise

  20. F.I.T.T. Programming • Threshold of training: the minimum amount of training that will produce a benefit. • Target Zone: A specific level of intensity and/or duration to derive a specific benefit. • Lactate Threshold: When the body’s metabolism switches to anaerobic methods. • OBLA: Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation. The body can no longer clear or buffer the lactic acid produced in anaerobic metabolism. • VO2 max: Aerobic power - maximum oxygen consumption during maximal graded exercise testing.

  21. What happens during Exercise • Muscular activity requires energy • That energy is delivered in the form of Adenosine Triphospate (ATP). • This energy can be supplied aerobically (in the presence of oxygen) or anaerobically (in the absence of oxygen). • The system used for delivering energy is dependent on the INTENSITY of exercise.

  22. What happens during Exercise • The increased need for energy and oxygen causes an increase in heart and ventilation rates. • The increased cellular metabolism causes an increase in heat production, which stimulates our thermoregulatory systems. • The core heat is transferred to the exterior environment. • Energy supplies are depleted, and must be restored.

  23. What happens during Exercise • The increased need for energy and oxygen causes an increase in heart and ventilation rates. • The increased cellular metabolism causes an increase in heat production, which stimulates our thermoregulatory systems. • The core heat is transferred to the exterior environment. • Energy supplies are depleted, and must be restored.

  24. Some is Better than None! HEALTHRISK OLD CONCEPT OF TRAINING REVISED CONCEPT OF TRAINING AMOUNT OF ACTIVITY

  25. Benefits of Moderate and Vigorous Activity

  26. Preparation for an Exercise Program • Establish Medical readiness: • Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR_Q) • ACSM Risk Stratification Categories and Criteria • Blood pressure at rest (no exercise if systolic >140mm Hg or diastolic > 90 mm Hg) • Correct equipment and clothes. • Shoes • Clothing appropriate for ambient conditions • Head protection from sun or cold

  27. Preparation for an Exercise Program • PAR-Q: screening document, ages 19 - 69 Has your doctor ever said that you have a heart condition and that you should only do physical activity recommended by a doctor? Do you feel pain in your chest when you do physical activity? In the past month, have you had chest pain when you were not doing physical activity? Do you lose your balance because of dizziness or do you ever lose consciousness? Do you have a bone or joint problem (for example, back, knee or hip) that could be made worse by a change in your physical activity? Is your doctor currently prescribing drugs (for example, water pills) for your blood pressure or heart condition? Do you know of any other reason why you should not do physical activity?

  28. Preparation for an Exercise Program • 70 years of age and over, physicians OK

  29. ACSM Guidelines • Because of increased risk, certain individuals should be given a graded exercise test prior to performing vigorous exercise: • Older individuals (men > 40 / women > 50) • Individuals with CHD risk factors(Family history, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, sedentary lifestyle, smoker, diabetic)

  30. ACSM Risk Stratification(based primarily on risks due to CHD) • Apparently healthy (1) • Asymptomatic • Only 1 risk factor • Increased risk (2) • Symptoms of CHD • Two or more risk factors • Known disease (3) • Known cardiac, pulmonary or metabolic disease

  31. GETTING STARTED Getting Ready

  32. Preparation for an Exercise Program • Equipment: • Exactly what do you need to get fit? • Cardio • Strength • Endurance • power • Balance • Coordination • What do you need for different modes of exercise? • Cycling, climbing

  33. Wearing Good Shoes is Important • 1. Running • 2. Court • 3. Aerobic • 4. Walking • 5. Tennis • 6. Cross trainers

  34. Shoe design issues • Sole lasting: straight/curved • Inner lasting: board/stitched • Heel counter/Achilles notch • Heel counter lateral attachments

  35. Factors to Consider During Daily Physical Activity • Importance of warm-up and cool-down for reducing risk of injuries and soreness • Environmental factors

  36. Preparing for Physical Activity: Summary • General Exercise Guidelines • Choose something you like • Know your limitations • Dress appropriately • Start slowly • Listen to your body

  37. Components of a Workout • Warm-up • Main activity • Cool-down

  38. Benefits of a Warm-up • Prepare cardiovascular system • Prepare metabolic system • Prepare musculoskeletal system

  39. Components of a Warm-up • Cardiovascular component • Flexibility component • Static programs • Ballistic programs • Proprioceptive Neuromuscular facilitation(PNF) • Active Assisted programs • Dynamic programs

  40. Benefits of a Cool-down • Reduces blood pooling • Promotes recovery • Minimizes muscle soreness

  41. Components of a Cool-down • Slowly reduce intensity level to reduce cardiovascular response to stressor • Clears metabolic waste and maintains healthier muscle tissue and reduced soreness. • Stretching returns muscles to pre-exercise length, maintaining flexibility.

  42. GETTING STARTED Fitness Assessment

  43. Fitness Assessment • Cardiovascular fitness • Muscular Strength • Muscular endurance • Flexibility • Body Composition

  44. Fitness Assessment - Cardiovascular • Use maximum graded exercise tests (GXT) • Or Submaximum GXT • Or field tests (advantages are large numbers can be tested easily and cheaply) • 20 meter Beep test • Step test

  45. Fitness assessment - cardiovascular • A submax aerobic fitness assessment yields a prediction of VO2max: measurement of oxygen utilization during maximum exhaustive exercise. • Can be compared to norms for individual assessment and exercise prescription.

  46. Fitness assessment - muscular strength • Done using: • 1 maximum lift (1RM) • Submaximal predictions (maximum resistance to do 10 or fewer lifts)

  47. Fitness assessment - muscular strength • Submaximal predictions can be done from a chart (included in the lab) or by using a prediction equation.

  48. GETTING STARTED Exercise Prescription

  49. F. I. T. Frequency