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Preparing and Writing Research Proposals

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  1. Preparing and Writing Research Proposals © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDC Update 2004

  2. Contents • Introduction • The Need for Scientific Research • Identifying and Prioritizing Research Needs • Identifying Sources of Research Funding © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  3. Contents (cont‘d) • Research Proposal Procees • Pre-planning • Writing the Proposal Pre-planning • Writing the Proposal © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  4. Contents (cont‘d) • Writing Techniques and Appearance of Proposal • Post-Proposal Writing • Group Research © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  5. The Need for Scientific Research © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  6. Objectives of this session © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  7. Review the basic components of scientific research. Examine the scientific method in practice. © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  8. Examine the relationship among research, tech-nology and production. Consider the value of the research endeavor to education © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  9. Basic Components of the Scientific Method Empirical Evidence Logical Reasoning Skepticism © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  10. Primary Literature Secondary Literature Textbook Science Reliable Knowledge © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  11. Initial Experimental and Observational Data Discarded by Peers No Primary Literature Yes Discarded by Peers No Secondary Literature Yes Discarded by Peers No Yes Textbook Literature © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  12. The Scientific Method in Practice © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  13. Step 1. Identify a significant problem or ask a meaningful question in such a way that there is a conceivable answer. © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  14. Step 2. Attempt to answer the question posed in step 1 above by gathering relevant information and making observations. © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  15. Step 3. Propose a solution to the problem or answer to the question as a scientific hypothesis. © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  16. Step 4. Test the hypothesis to allow corroboration and establishment of validity. © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  17. Step 5. Accept, reject, abandon, or modify the hypothesis. © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  18. Step 6. Construct, support, or cast doubt on a scientific theory © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  19. The Scientific Method in Practice Step 1: Identify Significant Problem or Ask Meaningful Question Step 2: Attempt to Answer Question orPose Solution to Problem Step 3: Propose Solution to ProblemorAnswer to Questionas a Scientific Hypothesis Continued ... © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  20. The Scientific Method in Practice (cont’d) Step 4: Test Hypothesis to Allow Corroboration andValidity Step 5: Accept, Reject, Abandon, or Modify Hypothesis Modify RejectAbandon Accept Step 6: Construct, Support, or Cast Doubt on a Scientific Theory © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  21. Research, Technology Development and Production © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  22. Technology Technology: Systematic application of scientific knowledge to practical tasks. © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  23. Technology Pure research, technology development, and production and marketing have substantial overlap in time. © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  24. Use of Graduate Research Assistants © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  25. Pros Training of future scientists Hands-on research Financial support for graduate students Low cost to Principal Investigator © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  26. Incentives for graduate enrollment Increased research capacity New science in graduate curriculum © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  27. Cons Narrow focus of graduate experience (reduced breadth) Possible delay in completing graduate program © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  28. Goal-oriented research results May not contribute to scientific merit as viewed by reviewers © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  29. Identifying and Prioritizing Research Needs © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  30. Objectives © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  31. Examine the need and approach for defining realistic research problems Recognize the need and establish methods for stakeholder input into identifying research problems © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  32. Examine the need for determining in advance the resources needed to conduct a research project © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  33. Defining Problems Example 3.1 Statement of the Problem: Insect Z.z. defoliation of Species 4 Reason for choosing this topic: a) commercial value b) tree damage (cont‘d on next slide) © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  34. Reason for choosing this topic: (cont‘d) c) percent of species A in commercial forests of region d) recreation impact e) need for control measures f) etc. © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  35. Example 3.2 Restatement of the Problem Reasons: a) species A is a commercially valuable tree species b) insect defoliation is resulting in growth reduction and death of trees (cont‘d on next slide) © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  36. c) species A is the dominant tree species in 45% of the commercial forests in region Y d) defoliation is reducing the recreation value in the parks in the region e) there are also current control measures for controlling insect Z.z on species A f) etc. © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  37. Example 3.3 An A BUT B Statement: There is a need to prevent defoliation of large areas of tree species A by insect Z.z in region Y, BUT, there are no effective and economical control measures for this insect. © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  38. Key Stakeholder Groups and Their Functions in Forest Research © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  39. Stakeholders are defined as people, groups, or organizations that have a claim on the research organization’s (and individual researcher’s) attention, resources or output, or are affected by that output. Lundgren,et al., 1994 © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  40. Funders and Legislators Evaluate budget and funding requests for research programs Provide funds for research © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  41. Higher-level Administrators and Policy Makers Prepare and justify budget requests Administer laws, regulations Allocate appropriations © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  42. Research Managers Plan and manage research programs Prepare and justify budget requests for specific research projects, programs, activities © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  43. Research Scientists Plan and do research Disseminate research findings © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  44. Research Disseminators Disseminate new knowledge and technologies resulting from research Provide feedback from users to scientists © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  45. Users of Research Results Adopt and adapt research results Implement new technologies © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  46. Civil Society / (General Public) Receive wanted and unwanted effects from the use of research results Affect funding decisions © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  47. Stakeholder Analysis © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  48. © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  49. © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

  50. Stakeholder What do they Criteria they According want from use to evaluate to these the the criteria, researcher? researcher's how is the performance. researcher performing? International - Specific - Progress Unknown in Research research reports this example Donor activities - Evaluations Organizations - Reports and - Publications results - Useful results - Well-conducted studies © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004