Chapter 5 Data Resource Management Database Terminology Types of Relationships Comparison to File Systems Labs Introduction to Databases Wagemart Scheduling (DSS) Supply Chain Mgmt. & RFID Fund Trading Lab (DSS) Student Presentations & Related Reading (see website) DBMS CRM ERP SCM EIS DSS GIS Expert System will be on the final but not this exam Topics
Historical Perspective • Information Systems were initially designed to meet the needs of traditional functional areas of business Production or Operations Accounting Marketing Finance Human Resources
Modern View • Enterprise Systems are so valuable and superior, Functional System are rarely developed anymore • An Enterprise System can replace several Functional Systems CRM System Production or Operations (PCS) MarketingSystem AccountingSystem FinanceSystem HR System
Modern IS Systems • The big software developers (Oracle for example), now sell Enterprise Systems (cross-functional), not functional systems. • i.e., they don’t sell a marketing System, but they do sell a CRM system. • Why? Oracle Siebel Essential for Operations Used by Marketing Used byAccounting FinanceSystem HR System
In the Real World • You might use more than one Enterprise System. • Example, if you work in Accounting, you might use 2 different Enterprise Systems and one functional system. ERP System CRM System Production Accounting System Accounting Human Resources Finance Marketing
Why this course matters • Accountant’s without a back-ground in MIS might not understand the roles these three systems play and why all three are necessary. ERP System CRM System Production Accounting System Accounting Human Resources Finance Marketing
Key Principle • These system exist because of common goals and the need to share information. • Business Processes are not isolated to one area ERP System CRM System Production Accounting System Accounting Human Resources Finance Marketing
Operations Support Systems Management Support Systems Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) Process Control Systems (PCS) Enterprise Collaboration Systems (ECS) Management Information Systems (MIS) Decision Support Systems (DSS) Executive Information Systems (EIS) Traditional Classification(Types of Systems) Information Systems
Modern View • But, Cross-Functional Systems are so complex, they do not fit into one category. Information Systems Operations Support Systems Management Support Systems Process Control Systems (PCS) Executive Information Systems (EIS) CRM System Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) Enterprise Collaboration Systems (ECS) Management Information Systems (MIS) Decision Support Systems (DSS)
WTF? • Q: Why did we study the different types if modern systems rarely fit one specific type? • A: Some basic systems still fit perfectly into a category • Example: Outlook is just an ECS. • A: Some enterprise system lack a certain characteristic. • Example: A poorly design CRM may not have any DSS characteristics.
Information Systems Operations Support Systems Management Support Systems Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) Process Control Systems (PCS) Enterprise Collaboration Systems (ECS) Management Information Systems (MIS) Decision Support Systems (DSS) Executive Information Systems (EIS) In the Real World • Does this mean an ERP system replaces all these other systems? ERP System
Information Systems Operations Support Systems Management Support Systems Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) Process Control Systems (PCS) Enterprise Collaboration Systems (ECS) Management Information Systems (MIS) Decision Support Systems (DSS) Executive Information Systems (EIS) In the Real World • It means that an ERP system has some of the characteristics of all these types of systems. • But, you still might need a basic TPS to handle your point of sale operations and ECS to collaborate. Cash Register System (POS) Outlook Peoplesoft
Second, make sure you understand databases Almost all information systems have an underlying database
Basic Information System Architecture Forms Reports Charts Applications Algorithms User Interface Queries DBMS User Database:Tables RelationshipsMetadata Information Systems that transform Data into something more useful…
Logical vs. Physical Logical Access Layerhow to access the DBMS Physical Access Layerhow to actually fetch the data from a hard disk or server Forms Reports Charts Applications Algorithms User Interface Queries DBMS User Database Information Systems
Why Databases are so great… • Database Management System (DBMS) does all the nitty-gritty work. • Information Systems just have to deal with Logical (high-level) Access. Logical Access Layerhow to access the DBMS Physical Access Layerhow to actually fetch the data from a hard disk or server DBMS
Before Databases SalesTeam Marketing Application Customer Data Docs Inventory Management System (TPS) SpecialInventory Data File Warehouse Manager Financial Calculator Tool Financial Spreadsheets VP of Finance These Information Systems are custom built based on the data (documents, files, spreadsheets)
Functional Systems built with DBMS SalesTeam Marketing System Customer Data DBMS Inventory Management System (TPS) Inventory Data Warehouse Manager Finance System Financial Data VP of Finance These Information Systems are now Database Applications
Enterprise Systems built with DBMS SalesTeam CRM System Customer Data DBMS Inventory Management System (TPS) Inventory Data Warehouse Manager ERP System Financial Data VP of Finance These Information Systems are now Database Applications
0 Databases • But, databases are not just a bunch of tables • A database also includes relationships between the different tables
ThingA ThingB Relationship Man Woman Married Types of Relationships One to One
Student Faculty Student Student Advises Get Advisement Types of Relationships One to Many
Student Course Student Student Course course has a student Student student takes course Types of Relationships Many to Many
Supply Chain Management Systems • Remember Lindsey and Deanna’s presentation.
Process of SCM: • SCM systems assist with • flow of Raw materials • Producing products • Providing service • Delivering the product to the end consumer.
Goals of an SCM system: • Speed • Efficiency • Reduce Cost • Improve Supply chain cycle times (to get a company’s products from concept to market)
Five Basic Components: 1. Plan 2. Source 3. Make 4. Deliver 5. Return
Third, review student presentations See the website… Also, the website tells you the corresponding reading.
Know the supply chain… • This wasn’t adequately covered in any of the presentations.
What if you don’t have enough bike parts? What if there aren’t enough bikes in Finished Inventory?
SCM Example • Supply Chain Systems are so complicated that its sometimes hard to see simple solutions. • Simple Solution: The guy who orders parts queries the Finished Inventory Database and the Orders Database. • In the older system, he only looked at the Parts database to see if they should re-order parts.
SCM Fundamentals • Implementing and then using an SCM can re-engineer a company. • This could improve the company’s operations significantly • Leads to Strategic Advantage • However, notice that an SCM system if very Operational • Its used everyday to support the core business process. • ERP systems are very different…
ERP Systems • So how are they different than SCM Systems? • The key is the word “Planning” • Planning is a forward thinking process • Planning for next year… • Supply Chain management • Planning for your next order • Implementing and using an ERP can re-engineer a company in even more strategic ways. • SCM system are more focused on ….?
ERP Example • Remember the presentation by… • Shalagh, Tara, and Kristen
One ERP System:Peoplesoft • Peoplesoft by ORACLE • Helps Companies with: • Customer Relationship Management • Financial Management • Supply Chain Management • Project Management • Asset Lifecyle Management • Sales and Other Application
ERP ADVANTAGES • Complete orders faster • Fewer errors • Security features to protect against outside crime • Better customer service • Improved efficiency and productivity • Easier to share data across departments • Complete revenue cycle faster
Do you get it? • What’s more likely… • An ERP system has a CRM and SCM built into it. • A SCM system has an ERP and CRM built into it.
Here is another distinction • SCM system help deliver products to customers faster… • CRM systems can also help with this… • But, CRM system are more focused on things like • Customer Service • Improving Sales • Marketing Support
Remember Ken & Nicole’s presentation… • Sales - Marketing • Marketing & Customer Service • Customer service could be an operational devision. • Training - HR
CRM and Human Resources • Professional Development • Performance Management • Human Resource Development & Compensation
Players Within a CRM • Customer Advocates & Experience Designers • Performance Managers & Marketing Analysts • Customer & Employee Surveyors & Analysts
Input • Database with: • Customer’s interactions with the organization • Support information • Requests • Complaints • Interviews • Survey responses
DSS • Julie, Lizzy, and Mike’s presentation is a must see…
Why Use a DSS? Linear Programming Regression Analysis Decision Trees Forecasting
In the real world… • Most Management Information Systems are now so interactive that…. • Every MIS is really a DSS. • Interactivity and Data Modeling are the key ingredients that distinguish a DSS from an MIS.
Where do GIS’s fit in? • There are a new kind of DSS that integrates geographic data with regular table-based data. • Maps + Spatial Data + Tables • See the presentation by Jill, Will, and Stacey… • Things to look at: Raster vs. Vector