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Macedonia is located in the center of Balkan peninsula ,in south-east part of Europe. The country is bordered by Albania on the West, Bulgaria on the East Greece on the South and Serbia and Montenegro on the North . Power electricity in Macedonia. Independence 8 September 1991
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Macedonia is located in the center of Balkan peninsula ,in south-east part of Europe. The country is bordered by Albania on the West, Bulgaria on the East Greece on the South and Serbia and Montenegro on the North Power electricity in Macedonia
Independence 8 September 1991 Government Type: Parliamentary Democracy • Electricity Production 6.273 billion KWH • Electricity Consumption 7.216 billion KWH • Electricity Imports 953 million KWH
The total area of the country is about 25000 km2 . Population about 2,12 million. Approximately 1/3 of the population lives in the capital of the country ,Skopje . Macedonia
Energy resources The energy potential is very modest base on capacity and structure Coal –The total reserves of coal in Macedonia are 941 million tons most of which (about 80%) are in balance reserves. Additionally, exploration reserves comprise about 60% of the total balance . • 82%of the existing reserves are suitable for surface exploitation. • 18% is strictly explored underground • Coal is mainly lignite the average value of the lignite is between 6/89 to 8.29
Plants in Suvodol-Bitola of installed 675 mw. Oslomej,Kicevo of installed 120 mw. Thermal plants Macedonia currently has two thermal plants fired with lignite
Macedonia currently has 12 hydropower station in operation with a total power production of 444.6 mw. From which 49%of the power production belongings to Mavrovo hydropower Hydropower potential
OKTA • The petroleum sector in Macedonia consists of refinery in Skopje (OKTA) a petroleum pipeline from the Greek border to the refinery ,and a distribution system for petroleum products including terminals and service station. The refinery is supplied with crude oil through pipeline jointly owned by Hellenic Petroleum (80%)and government of Macedonia (20%). • Capacity 2,5 million tons per year.
Gas • There is no gas resource in Macedonia. • The firs pipeline for the transport of natural gas was build from the Bulgarian border to Skopje at of a distance 90 km.
There are some regions of Macedonia in which geothermal energy resources are under exploitation. Investigations conducted in these regions indicate a higher potential for this energy than the one which is now under exploitation .In the forthcoming period it can be expected that this type of energy will improve its place on the energy market. Geothermal Energy
In these region wood is used only for the purpose of heating. According to the results the annual usage of firewood is between 68,500 m3 o 80,000m3 per year. Wood
Production of electric Power • The Public Enterprise power Company of Macedonia is a producer, transporter and distributor of energy throughout the country.The total power production of he company • Is 1432 mw of which 1010 mw belongs to the production of thermal power plants and 422 mw hydropower plants.
USAID • Is providing assistance to the Government of Macedonia for the restructuring of the utility company Macedonian Electric Company with the goal of converting the state owned enterprise into privately held, publicly regulated utility. • The law firm of Hutton and Williams is preparing a plan for the companies new structure and its implementation
Distribution • In addition to the power generation and transmission in its basic activity the public enterprise has the function of disturbing the electricity. • The distribution activity is accomplished through 28 organizational units of the enterprise that represent separate technical, technological and economic entities. • The electric supply of 570 000 customers in the area of the RM is provided at high middle and low voltage levels.
Wind energy Resource Potential • Macedonian potential wind resources have not been exploited so far, largely because of its recent political and ethnic problems, which diverted economic and energy resources to satisfying the basic needs of the economy and population. The wider former Yugoslav area has been reported (Davor Skrlec,Enconet International) as having potential wind resources of about 15PJ/year. • Being characterized high mountains some of the highest in Europe), it is reported that there are locations wich have annual average wind speed exceeding 7 m/s.
Renewable EnergyCurrent Status of Wind Energy • The renewable Energy Country Profile compiled by Black&Veach for EBRD (European bank for reconstruction and development) states that no direct information on wind energy is available. • A Countrywide wind- atlas is not available
Future economic development • The western Balkans economy needs to be developed toward an economic unit which will be able to absorb more foreign direct investment produce more competitive products for internal markets and provide more violability for balancing their trade deficit through foreign exchange .
Athens Memorandum 2003(Memorandum of understanding on the regional electricity in South East Europe and its integration into the European Union Internal Electricity Market) • Introduce European Union standards . • Establishment of independent electricity. • Electricity regulatory agencies . • Unbundling of power utilities .
Signatory countries • Albania • Bosnia and Herzegovina • Bulgaria • Croatia • Kosovo • FYR Macedonia • Romania • Serbia and Montenegro • Turkey
Potential Economic Benefits Increased power trade will reduce : Costs and tariffs Lead to greater regional integration and cooperation . Contribute to Peace and Stability
Connecting the Bulgarian black Sea of Burgas with the Albanian Adriatic port of Vlore. The AMBO pipeline projects entails a pro 570 miles pipeline. 750,00 barrel per day. Construction is expected to begin 2005 Completed by 2008
Cost of the project $ 1,2 billion International Donors • World Bank • The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. 3. International Monetary Fund • U.S overseas Private Investment Corporation The Governments of the three countries will provide political support only.
The AMBO Pipeline corporation based in NY has the exclusive rights to develop the Project
The Anglo American consortium which controls the Ambo trans-Balkan pipeline project linking the Bulgarian port of Burgas to Vlore on the Albanian Adriatic coastline largely excludes the participation of Europe's competing oil Giant Total Fina Elf. • In other words ,US strategic control over the pipeline corridor is intent upon weakening the role of the European Union and keeping competing European business interests at arms length. • http;//www.antic.org/YU4NSP/chosssudovsky/america.html
Nuclear power plants • There is one nuclear power plant in Bulgaria-Kozloduy (1970) • Six reactors have already shut down • Two more will do so before Bulgaria joins the EU in 2007
Second power plant Bulgarian Government plans to build a second nuclear power plant Location: Belene at Danube River Year: before 2011 Cost :2,4 billion Euro
New nuclear power plant will: Pollute soil Underground water Put an end to fishing Will turn Belene into a target of world Terrorism. Destroy the potential for tourism Devastate agriculture and wine making in the region Opponents of the project and their arguments (environmentalists)
Martir Iseni (exchange student from South East Europe –Tetovo ,FYR Macedonia) email:email@example.com www.seeu.edu.mk