Download
slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Infection Control PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Infection Control

Infection Control

943 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Infection Control

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Unit 3 Infection Control Nurse Aide I Course DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  2. Introduction to Infection Control Infection control is one of the most important aspects of environmental safety. Nurse aides have the responsibility to understand and follow the facility’s infection control policies and procedures. This unit introduces medical asepsis, Standard Precautions and care of the resident on Transmission-Based Precautions. DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  3. Infection Transmission DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  4. Objective 3.0 Apply the basic principles of infection control. DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  5. Microorganisms (Germs) • Can only be seen by using a microscope • Surround us • in air • on our skin and in our bodies • in the food that we eat • on every surface we touch DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  6. Microorganisms (Germs)(continued) • May cause • illness • infection • disease • Benefit us by maintaining a balance in our environment and in our body DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  7. Microorganisms (Germs)(continued) • Require certain elements to survive: • oxygen – aerobic • no oxygen – anaerobic • warm temperatures • moisture • dark area to grow DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  8. Microorganisms (Germs)(continued) • Require certain elements to survive (continued): • food • dead tissue – saprophytes • living tissue – parasites DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  9. Body Defenses Against Microorganisms/Germs • External natural defenses • skin as mechanical barrier • mucous membrane • cilia – fine microscopic hairs in nose • coughing and sneezing • hydrochloric acid in stomach • tears DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  10. Body Defenses Against Microorganisms/Germs(continued) • Internal natural defenses • phagocytes • inflammation • fever • immune response DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  11. Objectives 3.1 Identify how diseases are transmitted. 3.1.1 List the six components in the chain of infection. DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  12. Chain of Infection Causative Agent – Pathogen • Bacteria • Viruses • Fungi • Protozoa DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  13. Chain of InfectionReservoir of the Causative Agent • Human with active cases of disease or those that carry disease without having symptoms • Animals/insects • Fomites • Environment DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  14. Chain of InfectionPortals of Entry of Causative Agent • Cuts/break in skin • Openings in the mucous membranes • Respiratory system • Gastrointestinal system • Urinary system • Reproductive system • Mother to fetus DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  15. Chain of Infection Portals of Exit of Causative Agent • Tears (slight risk) • Saliva/respiratory tract secretions • Urine • Feces • Wound drainage • Reproductive tract secretions DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  16. Chain of Infection Mode of Transmission • Contact • direct – person to person • indirect – fomite to person • droplet – common cold • Common vehicle • salmonella in food DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  17. Chain of Infection Mode of Transmission(continued) • Airborne • tuberculosis • Vectorborne • mosquito harbors malaria parasite DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  18. Chain of Infection Host • The host is the individual who harbors the infectious organisms DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  19. Medical Asepsis DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  20. Objectives 3.2 Define medical asepsis. 3.2.1 Identify practices the nurse aide can use to promote medical asepsis in personal life and in work setting. DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  21. Medical Asepsis Definition: The practice used to remove or destroy pathogens and to prevent their spread from one person or place to another person or place; clean technique DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  22. Practices To Promote Medical Asepsis In Personal Life And Work Setting • Washing hands after use of bathroom • Washing hands prior to handling food • Washing fruits and vegetables before serving or consuming DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  23. Practices To Promote Medical Asepsis In Personal Life And Work Setting(continued) • Covering nose and mouth prior to coughing, sneezing or blowing nose and then washing hands DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  24. Practices To Promote Medical Asepsis In Personal Life And Work Setting(continued) • Bathing, washing hair and brushing teeth on a regular basis • Washing cooking and eating utensils with soap and water after each use DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  25. Practices To Promote Medical Asepsis In Personal Life And Work Setting(continued) • Following sanitation practices • Proper disposal of garbage • Proper disposal of waste materials DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  26. Practices To Promote Medical Asepsis In Personal Life And Work Setting(continued) • Washing hands before and after caring for each resident • Using approved waterless hand cleaner • Washing resident’s hands before meals DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  27. Practices To Promote Medical Asepsis In Personal Life And Work Setting(continued) • Cleaning resident’s unit • Cleaning all reusable equipment after use DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  28. Objectives 3.2.2 Discuss the methods used to kill or control microorganisms. 3.2.3 Observe basic cleaning, disinfecting and sterilizing tasks. DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  29. Methods To Kill Or Control Microorganisms • boil small items in water for 15 minutes • use chemical disinfectants for cleaning supplies and equipment • Disinfection (kills most microorganisms but not spores) DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  30. Methods To Kill Or Control Microorganisms(continued) • Sterilization • kills all microorganisms, including spores • autoclave – steam under pressure • other methods DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  31. Methods To Kill Or Control Microorganisms(continued) • Care of supplies and equipment • Central supply • Disposable equipment used once and discarded in proper manner DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  32. Methods To Kill Or Control Microorganisms(continued)Care of supplies and equipment • Cleaning non-disposable equipment • Rinse in cold water to remove organic material • Wash with soap and hot water • Scrub with a brush if necessary • Rinse and dry equipment • Sterilize or disinfect equipment DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  33. Objective 3.2.4 Discuss other aseptic measures to prevent the spread of infection. DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  34. Methods To Kill Or Control Microorganisms(continued) • Other aseptic measures • Hold equipment and supplies away from uniform • Avoid shaking linen • Damp dust furniture • Clean from cleanest area to the most soiled area DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  35. Direct cleaning away from your body and uniform Pour contaminated liquids into sinks or toilets; do not splash Other aseptic measures (continued) Methods To Kill Or Control Microorganisms(continued) DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  36. Methods To Kill Or Control Microorganisms(continued) • Do not sit on resident’s bed • Do not transport equipment from one resident’s room to another without cleaning • Other aseptic measures (continued) DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  37. Bloodborne Pathogens DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  38. Objective 3.3 Describe HIV and HBV as two examples of blood borne diseases. DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  39. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) • Persons infected with HIV may carry virus without developing symptoms for several years • HIV infected persons will eventually develop AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  40. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)(continued) • Persons infected with HIV may develop AIDS-related illnesses including neurological problems, cancer, and other opportunistic infections • Persons infected with HIV may suffer flu-like symptoms, fever, diarrhea, weight loss and fatigue DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  41. Brain of persons infected with HIV may be affected, causing confusion, memory loss, depression or motor dysfunction Although drugs may delay symptoms, there is no known cure for AIDS Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)(continued) DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  42. Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) • About one third of persons infected do not show symptoms • Another one third have mild flu-like symptoms which go away • The last one third experience abdominal pain, nausea and fatigue; skin and eyes jaundiced and urine dark DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  43. HBV preventable with use of HBV vaccine Six to ten percent of HBV infected persons become chronic carriers (may or may not have active infection, few or no symptoms, but can transmit disease) Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)(continued) DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  44. Objective 3.3.1 Describe the modes of transmission of HIV and HBV. DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  45. Bloodborne PathogensModes of Transmission • Sexual contact • Sharing contaminated needles • Receiving blood transfusions • Pregnant mother to unborn baby • Nursing mother to baby through breast milk (for HIV, not HBV) DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  46. Bloodborne PathogensModes of Transmission(continued) • Puncture wounds from sharps • Mucous membrane contact • Contact of infectious substances (urine, feces, saliva) with non-intact skin • Contaminated surfaces (for HBV, not HIV) DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  47. Objective 3.3.2 Identify the critical elements in the Exposure Control Plan. DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  48. Exposure Control Plan Bloodborne PathogensExposure Control Plan • Copy must be available at workplace • Mandated by OSHA • Identifies employees at risk of exposure by tasks performed DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  49. Exposure Control Plan Bloodborne PathogensExposure Control Plan(continued) • Specific measures to decrease risk to exposure • Administrative controls • Work practice controls • Engineering controls • Housekeeping • HBV vaccine DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3

  50. Exposure Control Plan Bloodborne PathogensExposure Control Plan(continued) • Post-exposure evaluation and follow-up • Wash the area immediately • Complete a facility incident report • Follow procedures for testing and treatment DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 3