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Infection Control

Infection Control

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Infection Control

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Infection Control Principles of Disease Transmission

  2. Microorganisms • Small living plant or animal • Non-pathogens • Live in or on the body • Part of the normal flora • May be beneficial to the body • Pathogens • Germs • Cause infection

  3. Types of Pathogens • Bacteria • One celled plants • Classified by shape and arrangement • Cocci – strep, staph • Bacilli – TB, tetanus • Spirilla – syphilis, cholera

  4. Protazoa • One celled animals • Found in decayed material and contaminated water • Malaria, dysentery

  5. Fungi • Simple plant-like organism • Live on dead matter • Yeasts, molds • Ringworm,athlete’s foot, thrush

  6. Rickettsiae - Parasitic microorganism • Transmitted to humans through the bite of a tick,fleas, Typhus and lice, mites • Rocky Mountain spotted fever

  7. Viruses • Smallest microorganism • Can only reproduce inside humans cells • Colds, chicken pox, warts, influenza, HIV, Hepatitis

  8. To Grow Warmth Darkness Source of food Moisture Aerobic need oxygen Anaerobic – don’t need oxygen Needs of microorganisms

  9. How Pathogens Cause Infections • Poisons/toxins • Ex: tetanus • Allergic Reactions • Ex: runny nose, sneezing • Attack and Destroy cells they invade • Ex: malaria

  10. Additional Classifications • Endogenous • Originates inside the body • Exogenous • Originates outside the body • Nonsocomial • An infection acquired inside the hospital • Opportunistic • Infections that occur when the body’s immune system is weak

  11. Chain of Infection

  12. Asepsis • Absence of disease-producing microorganisms • Any area or object containing pathogens is considered contaminated

  13. Levels of aseptic Control • Antisepsis • Prevent or inhibit the growth of pathogenic organism but are not effective against spores or viruses. • Ex: Alcohol/Betadine

  14. Disinfection • Destroys or kills pathogenic organisms but not always effective against spores or viruses • Ex: Bleach, Clorox

  15. Sterilization • The process that destroys all microorganisms both pathogenic and non-pathogenic including spores and viruses. • Ex: Steam under pressure, autoclave, gas, radiation, chemicals

  16. Most Inexpensive, Quickest, and Effective way to prevent the spread of pathogens

  17. Standard Precautions

  18. Two Main Ways Pathogens Spread • Blood • HIV • Hepatitis B • Hepatitis C • Body Fluids

  19. OSHA • Occupational Safety and Health Administration • 1991 established blood-borne pathogen standard regulations

  20. Regulations • Determine employees who have occupational exposure • Provide the Hepatitis B vaccine free • Provide PPE – Personal Protective Equipment • Provide adequate hand washing facilities • Ensure the worksite is maintained in a clean and sanitary condition

  21. Regulations Cont. • Enforce NO eating , drinking, smoking, applying lip balm or lipstick, handling contact lenses or mouth pipetting in any area potentially contaminated with blood or body fluids. • Provide adequate sharps containers coded red/orange • Post signs in areas where there is occupational exposure

  22. Provide confidential medical evaluation and follow up for any employee with an exposure • Provide free training for any new updates or changes

  23. Sharps • all needles • syringes • syringe bodies • scalpels • lancets • any glass items, such as slides or Pasteur pipettes, that are contaminated with potentially infectious material and/or human blood.

  24. PPE • Personal Protective Equipment

  25. Sterile Technique • Sterile • Free from all organisms • Contaminated • Organisms and pathogens are present • Items that touch your clothes or skin or any area below the waist are considered contaminated

  26. Sterile Field • Never reach across the top of the field • Reach in from the sides to add to the field • Never turn your back to a sterile field • 2 inches around the border are contaminated • Anything below the level of the tray is contaminated

  27. Methods to Remove Sterile Articles from Sterile Wraps • Drop Method • Mitten Method • Transfer Forceps

  28. Sterile Field • Keep Sterile field dry • Pathogens move quickly through wet surfaces • Take care when pouring solutions into a sterile field • When you put on sterile gloves, only handle sterile items

  29. Standards Precaustions • Used when contacting all patients

  30. Transmission-based Isolation • Airborne • Droplet • Contact • Protective

  31. Communicable Diseases • A disease caused by a pathogic organism that can be easily transmitted to others • Spread by • Direct contact with patient • Contact with blood and body fluids • Droplets • Discharge from wounds