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Chapter 10 Group Dynamics and Work Teams
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Chapter 10 Group Dynamics and Work Teams

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  1. Chapter 10 Group Dynamics and Work Teams

  2. Objectives • List the benefits and liabilities of teams • Identify what requirements must be in place to set the stage for successful work teams • Describe two models of group development

  3. …Objectives • Distinguish between group content and group process • Explain and diagnose group process behaviors that either help or hinder group effectiveness • Describe and recognize task and maintenance behaviors

  4. Benefits of Teams Faster decisions More accurate decisions Large tasks handled Greater understanding of decisions Greater commitment to decisions Liabilities of Teams Greater costs Slower decisions Less accurate decisions Damaged relationships More extreme decisions Benefits and Liabilities of Teams

  5. Defining Team Effectiveness • Components of Team Effectiveness • Output • Quantity, quality and timeliness of the productive output of the team • Social Processes • Capability of members to work interdependently • Learning • Knowledge and well-being of members

  6. Manager’s Responsibilities in Creating Effective Work Teams Use of Team Manager TeamContext Team Members Task Process

  7. When Should Teams Be Used to Make Decisions? • Task Characteristics • Complex • Large • Requires inputs from multiple sources • Uncertain • Member Characteristics • Task and interaction skills • Motivated and willing to work on the task • Trusted to work toward organizational goals • Team Characteristics • Resources to complete task • Responsibility and authority to complete the task

  8. Managing the Team Context • Secure resources • Manage team’s reputation • Coordinate with other organizational units

  9. …Managing the Team Context • External Roles • Ambassador • Manage upward relationships • Market the team • Lobby for resources • Scout • Gather information • Manage lateral and downward information searches • Task Coordinator • Manage interdependencies with other units • Coordinate deadlines • Obtain feedback on how team is doing

  10. Managing Team Members • Three factors need to be managed • Member Skills • Member Motivation • Member Composition and Diversity

  11. Managing Team Members – Member Skills • Members need the following skills: • Collaborative problem solving • Conflict resolution • Communication • Goal setting and performance management • Planning and coordination

  12. Managing Team Members - Motivation • Member Motivation • Minimize social loafing • Establish the proper level and type of rewards

  13. Managing Team Members - Motivation • Manage social loafing • Social loafing – the tendency for individuals to exert less effort when working in a group • Minimize social loafing by • Make contributions identifiable • Design tasks so they are intrinsically motivating • Assign responsibility and make it public • Have the team set its own goals • Reinforce the team’s social identity

  14. Managing Team Members - Motivation • Design effective reward systems • Balance team and individual rewards • Use individual rewards when the task requires individual contributions • Use team rewards when a group output is needed

  15. Managing Team Members – Composition and Diversity • Groups that incorporate multiple viewpoints and perspectives are more effective • Establish a balance of heterogeneous members who share group goals with • Task and interpersonal skill diversity • Demographic diversity

  16. Managing the Team Process and Task • Two factors need to be managed: • Stages of group development • Task and interaction requirements of each stage

  17. Managing the Team Process and Task – Group Development Adjourning Tuckman’s Model of Group Development Performing Norming Storming Forming

  18. …Managing the Team Process and Task – Group Development • Punctuated Equilibrium Model • Periods of inertia or equilibrium punctuated by a transitional period of radical change that occurs at the midpoint of the group’s calendar life, regardless of variations in duration • Productivity accelerates again right before the group’s time is completed

  19. …Punctuated Equilibrium Model

  20. Managing the Team Process and Task – Content Vs. Process Refers to “WHAT” the group is working on Refers to “HOW” the group is functioning Process Content

  21. How Can Groups Be Effective? • Need both maintenance and task behaviors • Groups that emphasize content and ignore their process are just as likely to fail as groups that emphasize process at the cost of task

  22. Managing the Team Process and Task – Task Process Task process focuses on how groups accomplish their work • Set agendas • Figure out time frames • Generate ideas • Choose techniques for making decisions and solving problems • Test agreement

  23. Managing the Team Process and Task – Task Behaviors Task behaviors contribute to accomplishing the group task or goal • Initiating • Seeking or giving information or opinions • Clarifying and elaborating • Summarizing • Consensus testing • Orienting

  24. Managing the Team Process and Task – Making Effective Decisions • Goal is to lengthen the “solution evaluation” phase of group decision making by using: • Structured discussion principles • Guidelines emphasize solution generation and analysis • Second solutions • Team must generate at least 2 solutions • Procedures for generating multiple perspectives • Adopt perspectives of other stakeholders • Use the “two-column method” • Appoint a devil’s advocate

  25. Managing the Team Process and Task – Building Cohesion • Cohesion is the degree to which members want to be a part of the group • Cohesive groups are better at achieving their goals (positive or negative) than noncohesive groups

  26. …Managing the Team Process and Task – Building Cohesion • Cohesion can be increased by: • Small group size • Group success • Common threat • Exclusivity • Perceived similarity among members • Intergroup competition

  27. Managing the Team Process and Task – Maintenance Process How do groups function to meet members’ psychological and relationship needs? • Leadership • Membership • Norms • Communication • Influence • Conflict management

  28. Managing the Team Process and Task – Maintenance Behaviors Creating a good climate for work and relationships that permit maximum use of member resources • Gate-keeping • Encouraging • Harmonizing and compromising • Standard setting and testing • Using humor

  29. Managing the Team Process and Task - Self-Oriented Emotional Behavior • Such behavior interferes with effective group functioning • Issues that occur and reoccur at various points in a group’s development • Identity • Control and power • Goals • Acceptance and intimacy

  30. Styles of Reducing Tension and Expressing Emotion Pure Types Friendly Helper(tender emotions) Tough Battler(tough emotions) Logical Thinker(denial of all emotions)

  31. Effectively Using Our Emotional Resources • Accept our personal feelings • Understand feelings in a group • Identify what triggers emotion • Express emotion differently and ask for feedback

  32. Group Norms - Defined A norm is an unwritten, often implicit, rule that defines the • attitudes and behaviors characterize a “good” versus a “bad” group member OR • group members’ acceptable behavior, attitudes, and feelings

  33. Transition from Group to Team Team Practice and Effort Group

  34. Teambuilding • Teambuilding efforts encourage team members to • Establish goals and priorities • Define team member roles • Examine and determine team task and decision-making procedures • Examine and determine team interpersonal relationships and norms

  35. Types 0f Organizational Teams • Self-managed teams - Members determine how the team will accomplish goals and work process(es) • Virtual teams - Geographically dispersed members work across time, space and organizational boundaries • Multicultural teams - Members of different ethnic backgrounds who share same nationality • Multinational teams - Members of different nationalities