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WRITING ACROSS THE CURRICULUM

WRITING ACROSS THE CURRICULUM

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WRITING ACROSS THE CURRICULUM

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  1. WRITING ACROSS THE CURRICULUM Hendrix College September 9, 2008 Julia Frost and Tina McCain University of the Ozarks Jones Learning Center

  2. Writing Across the Curriculum • 1:15 The Impact of LD and ADD on Writing • 2:00 Teaching Strategies • 2:30 Break • 2:45 Assignment Design • 3:15 Assessing Writing

  3. Learning Disabilities • “A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using spoken or written language, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or to do mathematical calculations." (IDEA)

  4. A Learning Disability Is: • Due to central nervous system dysfunction • Cross-cultural • Inconsistent • A life-long issue • Frustrating!

  5. A Learning Disability is NOT • A form of mental retardation • Caused by a poor academic background • A condition that only affects academic performance • Due to a lack of motivation • Due to poor auditory or visual acuity • Primarily due to environmental or cultural influences

  6. Facts About LD • 15% of the U.S. population, or 1:7 Americans, has some type of learning disability, according to the National Institutes of Health. • Difficulty with basic reading and language skills are the most common learning disabilities. As many as 80% of students with learning disabilities have reading problems. • Learning disabilities often run in families.

  7. Not All Great Minds Think Alike • Albert Einstein couldn't read until he was nine. • Walt Disney, General George Patton, and Vice President Nelson Rockefeller had trouble reading all their lives. • Whoopi Goldberg and Charles Schwab and many others have learning disabilities which haven't affected their ultimate success.

  8. Owed to a Spell Checker • I have a spelling checker It came with my PC • It plane lee marks four my revue Miss steaks aye can knot sea • Eye ran this poem threw it You should be glad two no • It’s very polished in it’s weigh My checker tolled me sew • A checker is a bless sing It freeze yew lodes of thyme • It helps me right all stiles of verse And aides me when aye rime • To rite with care is quite a feet Of witch won should be proud • And wee mussed dew the best wee can Miss stakes are knot aloud

  9. Owed (cont.) • And now bee casue my spelling Is checked with such grate care • There are know flaws within my site Of nun eye am a wear • Each frays come posed up on my screen Eye trussed to be a joule • The checker pours o’er every word To cheque some spelling rule • That’s why aye brake in two averse My righting wants too please • Sow now eye sea why aye dew prays Such soft wear for pea sea • --Author unknown

  10. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder • A neurobiological disorder characterized by developmentally inappropriate impulsivity, inattention, and in some cases, hyperactivity. • Evident for at least 6 months • Onset before age 7

  11. My thoughts were a great excitement, but when I tried to do anything with them, it was like trying to pack a balloon in a shed in a high wind. William Butler Yeats

  12. GUIDELINES FOR TEACHING WRITING TO STUDENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES • Emphasize the creating process and the importance of ideas. • Teach clear, simple strategies. • Use action/multisensory methods. • Be aware of concomitant ADD. • Teach skills—but realize that a learning disability does not go away. It is physically based. • Realize that spelling ability does not equal writing ability. • Don’t grade the disability. • Build self-esteem by praise of small successes. (However, avoid false praise.)

  13. Prewriting Strategies • Organization and Time Management • Introduce technology • Reading and writing • Brainstorming • Research and reading • Finding information, understanding information (Paraphrasing) • Looking at the Big Picture • Outlining

  14. Organization and Time Management • Planning • Awareness of deadlines • Knowledge of full assignment • Ability to break down tasks

  15. Technology • Reading software • Kurzweil Reader • ClaroRead • Read Please • Speech recognition software • Dragon Dictate • Windows Speech Recognition (Windows Vista)

  16. Paraphrasing STEPS FOR PARAPHRASING Step 1 Read a paragraph. Step 2 Ask yourself, “What were the main idea and details in this paragraph?” Step 3 Put the main idea and details into your own words. The University of Kansas Institute for Research in Learning Disabilities. Developed by Jean B. Schumaker, Pegi H. Denton, and Donald D. Deshler

  17. RAP Mnemonic • Read (Read the text) • Ask (Ask what is the most important information) • Put (Put into your own words)

  18. Paragraph TOPIC SENTENCE (controlling idea) FIRST PRIMARY SUPPORT (main division) SECONDARY SUPPORT (details) SECONDARY SUPPORT (details) SECOND PRIMARY SUPPORT (main division) SECONDARY SUPPORT (details) SECONDARY SUPPORT (details) THIRD PRIMARY SUPPORT (main division) SECONDARY SUPPORT (details) SECONDARY SUPPORT (details) WRAP-UP SENTENCE Essay INTRODUCTION: THESIS STATEMENT (controlling idea) FIRST PRIMARY SUPPORT (main division) SECONDARY SUPPORT (details) SECONDARY SUPPORT (details) SECOND PRIMARY SUPPORT (main division) SECONDARY SUPPORT (details) SECONDARY SUPPORT (details) THIRD PRIMARY SUPPORT (main division) SECONDARY SUPPORT (details) SECONDARY SUPPORT (details) CONCLUSION: WRAP-UP Structure

  19. Essay INTRODUCTION: THESIS STATEMENT (controlling idea) FIRST PRIMARY SUPPORT (main division) SECONDARY SUPPORT (details) SECONDARY SUPPORT (details) SECOND PRIMARY SUPPORT (main division) SECONDARY SUPPORT (details) SECONDARY SUPPORT (details) THIRD PRIMARY SUPPORT (main division) SECONDARY SUPPORT (details) SECONDARY SUPPORT (details) CONCLUSION: WRAP-UP Research Paper INTRODUCTION: THESIS STATEMENT (controlling idea) FIRST PRIMARY SUPPORT (main division) SUPPORT PARAGRAPH (details) SUPPORT PARAGRAPH (details) SECOND PRIMARY SUPPORT (main division) SUPPORT PARAGRAPH (details) SUPPORT PARAGRAPH (details) THIRD PRIMARY SUPPORT (main division) SUPPORT PARAGRAPH (details) SUPPORT PARAGRAPH (details) CONCLUSION: WRAP-UP Structure

  20. Working Outlines • Help students plan the paper—organization. • Help students see where they need more information —written expression. • Help students focus. • Work well with color coding —gathering and sorting data.

  21. Color-Coded Working Outlines • Facilitate movement between research and paper • Help visual learners • Defer plagiarism problems • Help students focus on one point at a time • Help with structure

  22. Topic: Hurricane Katrina’s Impact on the Economics of Riverboat Casinos I. Introduction A. Description of problem B. Background II. History of Riverboat Casinos along the Gulf Shore A. When riverboat gambling became popular B. Revenue generated by riverboat casinos III. Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina on Riverboat Casinos A. Loss of revenue B. Loss of property C. Loss of customers IV. Economic Analysis A. Profits versus losses B. Impact on the state V. Aid Policies and Rebuilding A. Government policies to help fix the problem B. Timeframe for rebuilding VI. Conclusion

  23. Drafting Worksheet 1.     Consider the topic. Spend time brainstorming. Use any of the techniques. 2.     Create a question for response: 3.     Respond to this question in one or two sentences (working thesis): Complete the following worksheet with the information you want to use to develop your essay. When using information from the text, remember to cite the article and page number so that you will not have to search for the information later. List the main ideas you may use to develop the working thesis: Main idea 1. Main idea 2. Main idea 3. Main idea 4. (Optional)  List the specific evidence you may use to support each main idea: Main idea 1. Your response: Support from text: Main idea 2. Your response: Support from text: Main idea 3. Your response: Support from text: Put the above ideas in complete sentences. Using the information that you have now gathered, write a rough draft of the essay.

  24. Compensatory Strategies for the Instructor • Make yourself available. • Listen to the student. Note differences between verbal ability and written ability. • Repeat and review. • Make required readings available early. • Allow students to bring outlines to class for in-class writing. • If work is completed in class or extra time cannot be allotted, expect that the student may produce less and adjust grading accordingly.

  25. Checking Content • Go over paper with student • Review outline • Use color-coding to highlight and group related information • If it isn’t highlighted, it probably isn’t needed. • If there is significantly less of one color, then that topic needs to be developed.

  26. Providing Frequent Feedback • Quizzes • Faculty/student conferences • Error analysis of a paper with a student if requested • Additional meetings to review rough drafts of written assignments prior to due date

  27. Alternative Assignments • Oral presentations • Videotaped projects • Research projects • Creative projects • Extra-credit assignments

  28. Assignment Design • Break assignment into components. • Offer choices for completion. • Use clear language. • Be specific. • For essay questions, allow outlines. • Could count in grade • Shows motivation

  29. Research Presentation The Research You must supply at least four resources for your research. A maximum of three of them may be from the internet. The other must be a book, magazine article, journal article, or newspaper article from Robson Library. • This is a presentation about the culture of a country. You should include information about the location and climate and the political and economic environments of the country, but this information should be minimal. Topics for major coverage should focus on the following items: Location and Climate Type of government and Officials Economy Social customs or Rituals Values of the people or Social mores Major holidays or Cultural events Traditional dress Foods Major religions Major subcultures or Social classes The Handout A Microsoft Word handout should be given to your classmates outlining the major points and information of your research (there are approximately 30 students in the class.) The handout should be more than only pictures or an outline. It should contain the information you want your audience to remember about your topic. It should also include the sources (in APA style) that you used. You should front/back the handout to save paper. The top right hand corner of the first page of the handout should contain: Your Names Marketing Concepts Class Presentation Title of Presentation Date of Presentation • A copy of your handout should be submitted to me the day of your presentation. If you need assistance with using Microsoft Word, see me during office hours. See the “Submission of Materials” section below for more information.

  30. Creative Projects World Civilization Project 4 Choose one of the following topics. See Discovering the Global Past, Ch. 7 for more information. • Create a recruiting poster or pamphlet for Crusaders. Include a 1-page explanation and analysis of your poster or pamphlet. • Write a 2-3 page account of the siege of Antioch (Source 4) or the capture of Jerusalem (Source 2) from the point of view of the “other side” (i.e., European Christian or Muslim). • You are a Crusader fighting in the first Crusade. Create either a journal or a series of letters home to a loved one, describing your experiences while on Crusade. Your letters or journal should be 2-3 pages long. • While the Crusades ended in the medieval era, the “crusading spirit” was an important part of European culture long after, as illustrated by European crusades against Muslim countries in the 17th century (the reconquista), and the actions and motivations of the Spanish conquistadors in the new World. World historians Alfred Andrea and James Overfield argue that the spirit of the crusades continues; that “the ideal of the crusade – the use of sanctified violence to combat evil – has remained an integral part of the Western mindset down to today.”[1] This is a fascinating, and, perhaps, a rather contentious assertion. Write a 2-3 page essay discussing this idea: Do you think the crusading ideal is still part of the Western mindset, even today? If so, what impact does it have? And, is it a good or bad thing? [1] Alfred Andrea and James Overfield, The Human Record: Source of Global History, Vol. 1, 5th ed. (Houghton Mifflin, 2005), 369.

  31. Other Examples • Analytical book report • Humanities paper notes • Composition II research timeline

  32. Specify the following: The CONTENT desired in the response The LENGTH of the response The SOURCES to be used The STYLE of the response (discuss, compare, contrast, evaluate, interpret, etc.) The amount of TIME needed Include the following: REMINDER to answer all questions POINT value CLaSS TRaP

  33. GUIDELINES FOR TEACHING WRITING TO STUDENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES • Emphasize the creating process and the importance of ideas. • Teach clear, simple strategies. • Use action/multisensory methods. • Be aware of concomitant ADD. • Teach skills—but realize that a learning disability does not go away. It is physically based. • Realize that spelling ability does not equal writing ability. • Don’t grade the disability. • Build self-esteem by praise of small successes. (However, avoid false praise.)

  34. Effective Assessment • Does not mean lowering standards. • Means positive grading. • Positive responses keep students motivated. • Consider presentation of assignment. • Ideas • Grammar • Appearance

  35. Evaluating Knowledge Rather Than Disability • Avoid correcting every error in a composition by a student with many problems in this area. • Avoid using a red pen for corrections. • Evaluate the process as well as the final product. • Consider dual grading: content vs. style. • Phrase evaluative comments in a positive way.