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Introduction to Microbiology

Introduction to Microbiology

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Introduction to Microbiology

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  1. Introduction to Microbiology

  2. Microbiology • Study of microscopic (living ) things • E.g. viruses, bacteria, algae, protists, fungi

  3. History of Microbiology • 1590 – First compound light microscope Zacharias Janssen

  4. History • 1676 –first observation of bacteria “animalcules” Anton Von Leeuwenhoek

  5. History • 1796 – First vaccine (smallpox) Edward Jenner

  6. History • 1857 – Germ Theory of Disease Louis Pasteur

  7. History • 1867 Antiseptic Surgery Joseph Lister

  8. History • 1884 Koch’s Postulates of Disease Transmission Robert Koch

  9. History • 1885 - Vaccine against Rabies Louis Pasteur

  10. History • 1929 Discovery of Penicillin (first antibiotic) Alexander Fleming

  11. History • 1938 – First Electron Microscope • The electron microscope is capable of magnifying biological specimens up to one million times. These computer enhanced images of 1. smallpox, 2. herpes simplex, and 3. mumps are magnified, respectively, 150,000, 150,000 and 90,000 times.

  12. History 1953 Structure of DNA Revealed Watson & Crick

  13. History 1954 Polio Vaccine Jonas Salk

  14. Recent History • Genetic engineering • Cloning • Human Genome Project • Biotechnology • Who knows what is next?

  15. Sizes of Microbes • Virus - 10 →1000 nanometers * • Bacteria - 0.1 → 5 micrometers ** (Human eye ) can see .1 mm (1 x 10 -3 m) * One billionth or 1 x 10 -9 m ** One millionth or 1 x 10 -6 m

  16. Tools of Microbiology • Compound light Microscope - live specimens - 1,000 mag. or less • Electron Microscope - non-living specimens - > 1,000 X mag. • Incubator – keep microbes warm for growth

  17. Techniques of Microbiology • Staining – to better see structures • Microbial Culture - growing the wee beasties • Container for microbe culture - usually Petri dish • Culture media - Food for the microbes - E.g. Agar – (from red algae) - Others such as nutrient broths

  18. Pure Culture Techniques • Inoculation • Isolation • Identification