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Telecommunications and Networks

Telecommunications and Networks

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Telecommunications and Networks

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  1. Telecommunications and Networks

  2. Learning Objectives • Identify major developments and trends in the industries, technologies, and business applications of telecommunications and Internet technologies. • Identify the basic components, functions, and types of telecommunications networks used in business.

  3. Section I The Networked Enterprise

  4. Networking the Enterprise • Networking business and employees • Connecting them to customers, suppliers, and other stakeholders.

  5. Trends in Telecommunications • Industry • More competitive • More options for the firm • Technology • Unrestricted connectivity • Easy access for end users • Open systems • Use common standards for hardware, software, applications, & networking.

  6. Trends in Telecommunications (continued) • Technology (continued) • High degree of interoperability • Digital networks • Higher transmission speeds • Moves larger amounts of information • Greater economy • Lower error rates • Multiple types of communications on the same circuits

  7. Trends in Telecommunications (continued) • Technology (continued) • Fiber-optic lines & cellular, PCS, satellite & other wireless technologies • Faster transmission speeds

  8. Trends in Telecommunications (continued) • Business applications • Dramatic increase in the number of feasible telecommunication applications. • Cut costs, reduce lead times, shorten response times, support e-commerce, improve collaboration, share resources, lock in customers & suppliers, & develop new products & services

  9. The Internet • A network of networks • Popular uses • E-mail • Instant messaging • Browsing the World Wide Web • Newsgroups and chat rooms

  10. The Internet (continued) • The business value of the Internet

  11. Intranets • Within an organization • Uses Internet technologies • Business value of Intranets • Used for information sharing, communication, collaboration, & support of business processes. • Web publishing • Comparatively easy, attractive, & lower cost alternative for publishing & accessing multimedia business information

  12. Intranets (Portals)

  13. I.e. IBM WebSphere

  14. WebSphere (ctd) • WebSphere Portal leverages the strengths of IBM middleware,including: • Lotusfor advanced collaboration and expertise location • Tivoli for role-based access to business systems • IBM Data Management tools for fast data access (DB2) • Commerce for business-to-business (B2B)and business-to-consumer (B2C) • IBM wireless and voice technologies • IBM WebSphere Application Server as the foundation

  15. WebSphere (ctd) EveryPlace Access

  16. Extranets • Network links that use Internet technologies to interconnect the firm’s intranet with the intranets of customers, suppliers, or other business partners • Consultants, subcontractors, business prospects, & others

  17. Extranets (continued) • Business value • Improve communication with customers and business partners • Gain competitive advantage in • Product development • Cost savings • Marketing • Distribution • Leveraging their partnerships

  18. Section II Telecommunications Network Alternatives

  19. Telecommunications Network Alternatives

  20. A Telecommunications Network Model

  21. A Telecommunications Network Model (continued) • Consists of five basic components • Terminals • Any input/output device that uses telecommunication networks to transmit or receive data • Telecommunication processors • Support data transmission and reception between terminals and computers

  22. A Telecommunications Network Model (continued) • Telecommunications channels • The medium over which data are transmitted and received • Computers • Interconnected by telecommunications networks • Telecommunications control software • Control telecommunications activities & manage the functions of telecommunications networks

  23. Types of Telecommunications Networks • Wide Area Networks (WAN) • Cover a large geographic area. • Local Area Networks (LAN) • Connect computers & other information processing devices within a limited physical area. • Connected via ordinary telephone wiring, coaxial cable, or wireless radio & infrared systems

  24. Types of Telecommunications Networks (continued) • Virtual Private Networks • A secure network that uses the Internet as its main backbone network, but relies on fire walls and other security features

  25. Types of Telecommunications Networks (continued)

  26. Types of Telecommunications Networks (continued) • Client/Server Networks • Clients – end user PCs or NCs • Server – helps with application processing and also manages the network

  27. Types of Telecommunications Networks (continued)

  28. Types of Telecommunications Networks (continued) • Network computing • “the network is the computer” • Thin clients process small application programs called “applets.”

  29. A Telecommunications Network Model (continued) • Peer-to-Peer (P2P) • Two major models • Central server architecture • Pure peer-to-peer

  30. Telecommunications Media • Twisted-pair wire • Coaxial cable • Minimizes interference and distortion • Allows high-speed data transmission • Fiber optics • Glass fiber that conducts pulses of light generated by lasers • Size and weight reduction • Increased speed and carrying capacity

  31. Wireless Technologies • Terrestrial Microwave • Line-of-sight path between relay stations spaced approximately 30 miles apart. • Communications Satellites • Geosynchronous orbits • Serve as relay stations for communications signals transmitted from earth stations

  32. Wireless Technologies (continued) • Cellular & PCS Systems • Each cell is typically from one to several square miles in area. • Each cell has its own low-power transmitter or radio relay antenna. • Computers & other communications processors coordinate & control the transmissions to/from mobile users as they move from one cell to another

  33. M-commerce • Transactions and non-transaction functions over wireless networks • Growth due to: • Newer and smaller technologies • More mobile populations • Deregulation of telecommunication markets • Less costly infrastructure than wired alternative • Slower to grow in US than Europe and Asia

  34. pizza M-commerce • Issues • Relatively slow transmission speeds • Screen size • Battery technology • PDA and smart phone

  35. Cellular Networks • Overlapping towers • Signal picked up by closest tower and transferred on • AMPS standard (TACS in EUROPE) • PCS and various alternative standards

  36. Wireless Application Protocol • WAP forum • WAP proxy server • Issues in Web service • Requires scaled down sites • Low transmission speed • Non-compatible WAP versions • Lack of good WAP-enabled sites

  37. I-mode • Wireless Internet service • 60% of Japanese market • Why so popular? • Lack of easy and based Internet access in Japan • Lower PC penetration in Japan • Extensive wireless coverage • Returns money to website providers

  38. Personal Area Networks • Connection of computer to peripherals or other computers • Connect PDA and desktop computer • Several connection methods: • Bluetooth(radio frequency – up to 300 feet) • IrDA (Infrared)(cheap) • Wireless LAN 802.11b – wireless Ethernet(more reliable)

  39. New Generations of Wireless Networks • 3G network • Broadband up to 2 Mbps • Packet switched • Combine prior incompatible system(agreement on standards) • Virtual home environment

  40. Telecommunications Processors • Modems (modulation/demodulation) • Changes signals from analog to digital and back to analog • Multiplexers • Allows a single communication channel to carry simultaneous data transmissions from many terminals

  41. Telecommunications Processors (continued) • Internetwork Processors • Switches • Makes connections between telecomm circuits so a message can reach its intended destination • Router • Interconnects networks based on different rules or protocols

  42. Telecommunications Processors (continued) • Hub • Port switching communications processor • Gateway • A processor that interconnects networks that use different communications architecture

  43. Telecommunications Software • Provides a variety of communications support services including connecting & disconnecting communications links & establishing communications parameters such as transmission speed, mode, and direction.

  44. Telecommunications Software (continued) • Network Management • Traffic management • Security • Network monitoring • Capacity planning

  45. Network Topologies • Star • Ties end user computers to a central computer • Considered the least reliable • Ring (sometimes called Token Ring) • Ties local computer processors together in a ring on a more equal basis. • Considered more reliable & less costly

  46. Network Topologies (continued) • Bus • Local processors share the same bus, or communications channel • Tree is a variation which ties several bus networks together

  47. Network Topologies (continued)

  48. Network Architectures & Protocols • Protocols • A standard set of rules & procedures for the control of communications in a network • Standards for the physical characteristics of cables and connectors • Network Architecture • Goal is to promote an open, simple, flexible, efficient telecommunications environment

  49. Network Architectures and Protocols (continued) • OSI Model • TCP/IP • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol • Used by the Internet and all intranets and extranets

  50. Bandwidth Alternatives • Bandwidth is the frequency range of a telecommunications network • Determines the channel’s maximum transmission rate • Measured in bits per second (bps) or baud • Narrow-band • Low-speed transmission • Broadband • High-speed transmission