Prologue, Section 1(Part A):The Legacy of Ancient Greece – Pg 5 Opening Activity: In a paragraph, write what democracy means to you. CA Social Science Content Standards: 10.1.1, 10.1.2
461 BC 451 BC 27 BC Pericles Romans An Empire Reforms Write Replaces Athenian Down Roman Democracy Laws Republic | | | -----------------------------------------
AD 1215 AD 1689 AD 1787 Magna English U.S. Carta Bill of Rights Constitution Limits Protects written, setting up English some representative Monarchy liberties government | | | ---------------------------------------------------
Taking Notes 1. Define the following terms: government citizen natural laws democracy direct democracy aristocracy monarchy Three Contributions of Greece to Democracy 2. 3.
I. Athens Builds a Limited Democracy A. Setting the Stage -Government—a system for exercising authority. -Through most of history people lived under absolute rulers, such as chieftains, kings, or pharaohs, who had total power. -The idea of democracy (a Greek word: demos meaning “people” and kratos meaning “rule” or “authority”) or rule by the people, evolved very slowly. -2000 B.C. Greek civilization began…had city- states with their own government.
-Athens emerged as the most powerful city-state in the 6th century B.C. -In 683 B.C. Athens developed into an aristocracy—a state ruled by the noble (wealthy) class. -Each year an assembly of citizens would elect three nobles to rule the city-state. -Citizens were adult male residents who were granted certain rights and responsibilities.
B. The Reforms of Cleisthenes -In 508 B.C. the Athenian leader Cleisthenes introduced further reforms: *Worked toward making Athens a full democracy. *Worked to breakup the power of the nobility. *Allowed all citizens to submit laws for debate and passage in the assembly. *Created the Council of Five Hundred—proposed laws and counseled the assembly. *Council members chosen by lot, or by random. Cleisthenes
C. The Reforms of Solon - Athens suffered severe economic problems—to pay off their debt farmers pledged their crops, land, and themselves (slavery). -In 594 B.C. Solon, a respected statesman, passed reforms that: *Outlawed slavery based of debt. *Established four classes based on wealth instead of heredity—all free adult males were citizens (1/10 of the population). *Created a new Council of Four Hundred to aid the existing council. *Right of citizen to bring charges against wrongdoers. Solon
II. Changes in Greek Democracy A. Greece Under Attack -In 500s B.C., Persian Empire was expanding—Darius the Great attacked Athens with a army of 25,000 men—Athens won. -Ten years later Darius’s son Xerxes attacked again—the Greek city-states united and won again—Formed the Delian League (140 city-states with Athens as the leader). Darius the Great Xerxes
B. Pericles Strengthens Democracy -Under Pericles, leader of Athens from 461 to 429 B.C. Greece reached its Golden Age—lasted 50 years. -Pericles increased the number of paid public officials and jurors— even the poor were involved. -Athens evolved into a direct democracy—a form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives. -Growing tensions in Athens and Sparta caused the Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.). -The Weakened Athens and disbanded Delian League led to the invasion of Athens by the Macedonians which ended democracy in Athens—Alexander the Great ruled by a monarchy or government controlled by one person.
C. Greek Philosophers Search for Truth -Several great thinkers appeared in Greece that used logic and reason to investigate the nature of the universe, human society, and morality—called philosophers meaning “lovers of wisdom.” -Philosophy based on: *The universe is put together in an orderly way and is subject to unchanging laws. *People can understand these laws through logic and reason. -First great philosophers: Socrates (Socratic Method: teaching through step-by-step questions that are designed to lead the student to the truth). -Socrates‘s student was Plato who wrote The Republic—his vision of a perfectly governed society governed by a philosopher king. -Plato’s student was Aristotle who examined the nature of the world and of human belief, thought, and knowledge—wrote Politics.
Aristotle Socrates Plato
C. Legacy of Greece -Greeks set the standard for politics and philosophy—did not rely on superstition or traditional explaniations of the world. -Natural laws—using reason and intelligence to discover predictable patterns to explain the world. -Greeks first to develop democracy and three branches of government: legislative, executive, and judicial.
Review Questions • _____________ increased the number of public positions that received pay and paid citizens to serve as jurors. This strengthened Greek democracy by enabling poorer citizens to participate in government. • In the Republic, ___________ argues that the best government for a society would be one ruled by a philosopher-king. • The phrase “government of laws, not of men” means all persons, including government officials must _________ the law. • The Greeks contributed to modern democracy by developing the practice of the __________ participating in political decisions. • In order for a democracy to be a ___________ democracy, laws must be voted on by citizens. • A system for controlling society is a definition for _____________. • The __________ Branch carries out laws. • The __________ Branch settles disputes about the law. • The __________ Branch makes laws. Words: Judicial Legislative government Executive people Plato obey direct Pericles
Pg 9 Number 2 1. Use of reason and intelligence to discover natural laws Three Contributions of Greece to Democracy 4. Paying jurors So that all people Could participate In government. 2.Development of Direct Democracy 3. Three branches of government